The Kurds and Middle Eastern “State of Violence”: the 1980s and 2010s

Hamit Bozarslan

Abstract


Though a macro-level analysis this article examines the evolution of the Kurdish issue since the occupation of Iraq in 2003 and the Syrian crisis in 2011, underlining the necessity of a comparison between the current period and past situations, namely that of the 1980s. Kurdish actors participated from a rather weak position in the Middle-East wide conflicts during the 1980s; alliances with regional states that gave access to political and military resources ensured their durability, but a high price was paid for their transformation into subordinated players of a broader “state of violence”. Since 2011, the trans-border Kurdish space finds itself once again in the heart of a “system of transaction” based on violence, but Kurdish organisations face the new region-wide conflicts in a position of empowerment in Iraq, Syria and Turkey.

 

Kurd û Rewşa Tund ya Rojhilata Navîn: 1980yan û 2010an

Ev gotar, bi rêka helsengeka asta-makro, vedikole li  peresîna pirsgirêka Kurdî ji dema dagirbûna Iraqê di 2003yê da û qeyrana Sûriyeyê di 2011ê da û bi taybetî beldikişîne ser pêwistiya berhevdaneka di navbera serdema niha û rewşa borî, anku rewşa salên 80yan. Di salên 80yan da hêzên Kurd pitir ji pozisyoneka qels û lawaz beşdarî dijberî û aloziyên Rojhilata Navîn bûn; hevalbendiyên li gel dewletên li herêmê rê da bikaranîna çavkaniyên siyasî û leşkerî bo misogerkirina berdewamiya hêzên Kurd; lê van dewletan, bi hewldanên giranbuha, hişt ku kurd bimînin wekî aktorên bindest di nav rewşa tund ya herêmê da. Ji 2011ê ve, tevgera kurd ya dersînor careka din xwe di navenda pergaleka tund da dibine; lê vê carê rêkxistinên kurd yên li Iraq, Sûriye û Tirkiyeyê ji pozisyoneka bihêz rûberî vê dijberiya berfireh ya heremî ne.

 

 

کورد و ''باری توندوتیژی''ی ڕۆژهەڵاتی ناوەڕاست: ١٩٨٠کان و ٢٠١٠یەکان

حئەگەرچی ئەم گوتارە  شیکردنەوەیە لە پلەیەکی باڵادا، لە گەشەکردنی پرسی کورد ورد دەبێتەوە لە داگیرکردنی عیراقەوە ساڵی ٢٠٠٣ و لە قەیرانی سووریاوە ساڵی ٢٠١١، ئەوەیش جەخت دەکات کە  پێویستە بەراورد بکرێت لەنێوان قۆناغی ئێستا و و هەلومەرجی ڕابوردوودا، واتە هەلومەرجی ١٩٨٠کان. نەخشگێڕانی کورد لە هەڵوێستێکی تا ڕادەیەک لاوازەوە بەشدارییان لە ناکۆکییە فراوانەکانی ڕۆژهەڵاتی ناوەڕاستی ١٩٨٠کاندا کرد؛ هاوپەیمانیکردن لەگەڵ دەوڵەتانی ناوچەییدا کە دەبووە هۆی دەستکەوتنی سەرچاوەی سیاسی و عەسکەری، مانەوەیانی دابین دەکرد، بەڵام دەبوو نرخێکی زۆریش بدەن بۆ ئەوەی ببنە یاریکەری لاوەکی لە ''باری توندوتیژی''یەکی بەربڵاودا. لە ساڵی ٢٠١١ بە دواوە، ڕووپێوی کوردیی ئەمدیو و ئەودیوی سنوورەکان جارێکی دیکە خۆی لە ناوجەرگەی ''سیستەمێکی بدە و بستێنە''دا دەبینێتەوە کە لەسەر توندوتیژی هەڵچنراوە، بەڵام ڕێکخراوە کوردییەکان کە ڕووبەڕووی ناکۆکییە بەربڵاوەکانی ناوچەکە دەبنەوە، لە پلەیەکی توانستدان لە عیراق، سووریا و تورکیا.


Keywords


Kurdish movements; state of violence; Iraq; Syria; Turkey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, M.M.A. and Gunter, M.M. (eds.) (2005). The Kurdish Question and the 2003 Iraq War. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers.

Ahmed, M.M.A. and Gunter, M.M. (eds.) (2013). The Kurdish Spring: Geopolitical Changes and the Kurds. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers.

Bașer, B. (2013). Inherited Conflicts: Spaces of Contention between Second-Generation Turkish and Kurdish Diasporas in Sweden and Germany. (unpublished doctoral dissertation). European University Institute, Italy.

Bozarslan, H. (2014). The Kurdish Issue in Turkey of 2010s. Orient, 1, 6-10.

Bozarslan, H. (2012). Revisiting Middle East’s 1979. Economy and Society, 41(4), 558-567.

Çandar, C. (2013, 19 July). “Süreç” ve “Rojava Devrimi”. Radikal.

Ekmekçi, F. and Kaya, İ. (2013). Çözüm Sürecinin Değerlendirilmesi. Istanbul: UKAM.

Eliassi, B. (2013). Contesting Kurdish Identities in Sweden: Quest for Belonging among Middle Eastern Youth. New York: Palgrave.

Giddens, A. (1987). The Nation-State and Violence. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Elling, R. C. (2013). Minorities in Iran: Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini. New York: Palgrave.

Gros, F. (2006). Etats de violence. Essai sur la fin de la guerre. Paris: Gallimard.

Idiz, S. (2013, 19 July). Turkey Adds Fuel to Iraqi Kurds’ Fight for Independence. Al Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/ 2013/07/independent-turkish-kurdistan-moves-forward.html (last accessed 19 July, 2013).

Lawrence, Q. (2008). Invisible Nation: How the Kurds’ Quest for Statehood is Shaping Iraq and the Middle East. New York: Walker and Company.

Lesch, D. W. (2001). 1979: The Year that Shaped the Modern Middle East. Colorado: Westview Press.

Gunes, C. and Zeydanlıoğlu, W. (eds.) (2014). The Kurdish Question in Turkey: New Perspectives on Violence, Representation and Reconciliation. London: Routledge.

Pécaut, D. (1997). De la banalité de la violence à la terreur: le cas colombien. Cultures et Conflits, 24/25, 159-193.

Randal, J.C. (1997). After Such Knowledge, What Forgiveness? My Encounters with Kurdistan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Scalbert-Yücel, C. (2014). Le champ littéraire kurde en Turquie (1980-2010). Paris: Petra (forthcoming).

Tejel, J. (2009). Syria’s Kurds. History, Politics and Society. London: Routledge.

van Bruinessen, M. (1988). The Kurds Between Iran and Iraq. MERIP Report, 141, 14-27.

Watts, N.F. (2010). Activists in Office. Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey. Seattle: Uni-versity of Washington Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2012-2017 Kurdish Studies / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.