Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The challenges of writing Kurdish literary history: Representation, classification, periodisation

Farangis Ghaderi

Abstract


Writing Kurdish literary history, that is a historical account of the development of Kurdish literature, is a fairly new project. Literary critics have strived to construct a comprehensive narrative of the evolution of poetry and prose and to classify individual works into certain schools and movements. Doing so, however, has proved to be a challenging task for Kurdish literature predominantly due to the lack of adequate knowledge of classical, and even contemporary, literature as a consequence of sizeable unpublished or lost manuscripts. In fact, the scarcity of knowledge on classical literature has left critics with a fragmented and episodic picture of Kurdish literary history. In this article I evaluate Kurdish literary historiography in the light of the scarcity of information and examine its ideological foundation and methodological problems. I discuss the significance of collecting, editing and publishing documents and manuscripts as a crucial step in rewriting Kurdish literary history and the way this might change our understanding of Kurdish literature.

Keywords: Kurdish literature; literary history; literary canon; manuscript; classification; periodisation.

Astengên li ber nivîsîna tarîxa edebiyata kurdî: Pêşkeşkirin, tesnîfkirin, û qonaxbendî

Nivîsîna tarîxa edebiyata kurdî, anku nivîsîna tarîxa werar û geşeya edebiyata kurdî, hewldaneke nû ye. Rexnegirên edebî hewla wê yekê dane ku wêneyekî giştgîr ê şi’r û pexşana kurdî bikêşin û berhemên nivîseran jî di nav rewt û hereketên edebî de bisenifînin. Lê belê, ev yek kar û erkekî zehmet e di çarçoveya edebiyata kurdî de, lewre windabûn an belavnebûna gelek ji destnivîsan nahêle ku zanyariyên saxlem û berfireh bi dest bikevin li ser edebiyata klasîk û hevçerx. Lewma bi tenê zanyariyên belawela hene li ber destê me sebaret bi tarîxa edebiyata kurdî. Ev gotar binemayên îdeolojîk/hizrî yên tarîxnivîsiya edebiyata kurdî û kêşeyên wê yên mêtodolojîk rave dike û balê dikêşe ser girîngiya berhevkirin, amadekirin û belavkirina belge û destnivîsaran wek pêngaveke esasî di jinûve-nivîsîna tarîxa edebiyata kurdî de, hewldanek ku dikare têgihiştina me li ser edebiyata kurdî biguhere. 


Keywords


literary history; literary schools; kurdish manuscripts;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adak, A. (2013). Destpêka Edebiyata Kurdî ya Klasîk. Istanbul: Nûbihar Yayinlari.

Amêdî, S. B. (1980). Hozanvanêt Kurd. Baghdad: Çapxaney Korrî Zanyarî Kurd.

Allison, C. (2010). Kurdish Oral Literature. In P. Kreyenbroek and U. Marzolph (eds.), Oral Literature of Iranian Languages: Kurdish, Pashto, Baluchi, Ossetic; Persian, Tajik: Com-panion Volume II: A History of Persian Literature (33-69). New York and London: I B Tauris & Co Ltd.

Baldick, C. (2008). “Literary History”. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://0-www.oxfordreference.com. lib.exeter.ac.uk/view/10.1093/acref/9780199208272.001.0001/acref-9780199208272-e-663 (last accessed 10 October, 2013).

Balî, A. (1992). Antolojîya Helbestvanên Kurd. Istanbul: Pelê Sor.

Bapîr, 'E. K. (1939). Gulldestey Şo'eray Haw'esrim. Slêmanî.

Bidlīsī, Sh. Kh. (1964). Sharafnāmah, Tārīkh-e Mufaṣal-e Kurdistān. Tehran: Mo'assese-ye Matbu'at-e 'Elmī. [The first printing of the Persian text was produced in St. Peters-burg by Zernof in 1860-62. In 1886 the text was printed by Kurds in Cairo at the Matbi'a al-Kurdī.]

Borekeyî (Sefîzade), S. (1991). Mêjûy Wêjey Kurdî. Bane: Intişarat Nacî.

Bruijn, J. T. P. de. (1997). Persian Sufi Poetry: Introduction to the Mystical Use of Classical Per-sian Poems. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.

Celîl, C. (2004). Keşkûla Kurmancî. Wîen: Verein zur Erforschung und Förderung der kurdischen Sprache, Kultur und Geschichte.

Celîl, C. and Celîl, O. (1978). Zargotina K’urda. Moscow.

Chamanara, B. (2013). An Investigation into the Kurdish Genre of the Shāhnāma and its Religious Dimensions. Journal of Persianate Studies, 6(1-2), 163-177.

Clinton, J. (1372/1994). Nuktah-yi chand dar barah-i vaz '-i kununi-i tarikh-i adabi dar Iran. Iran Nama, 12, 35-50.

Crane, R.S. (1971). Critical and Historical Principles of Literary History. Chicago and Lon-don: The University of Chicago Press.

Feyzî, E. (1920). Encumenî Edîbanî Kurd. Istanbul: Tarjoman-e Haqīqat.

Ghaderi, F. (2015, forthcoming). The Emergence and Development of Modern Kurdish Poetry. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Exeter.

Glünz, M. (1996). Poetic Tradition and Social Change: The Persian Qasida in Post-Mongol Iran. In S. Sperl and Ch. Shakle (eds.), Qasida Poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa: Classical Traditions and Modern Meanings (183-205). Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Harris, W. V. (1994). What Is Literary “History”? College English. 56(4), 434-451.

Hassanpour, A. (1990). The Language Factor in National Development: the Standardiza-tion of the Kurdish Language, 1918-1985. USA: UMI.

Heme Kerîm, H. S. (1986). Dîdarî Şê'rî Kilasîkî Kurdî. Baghdad: Wezaretî Roşinbîrî û Rag-eyandin.

Hilmî, R. (1988). Şê'r û Edebiyatî Kurdî. Hewlêr: Çapxaney Te'lîm û Te'alî. (First published in 1941-56).

Kakey Felah. (1978). Karwanî Şê'rî Nwêy Kurdî. vol. 1. Baghdad: Çapxaney Korî Zanyarî Kurd. (Frist published in 1958).

Khabour, I. (forthcoming). Kurdish Classical Poetry: Continuity or Discontinuity. (Un-published doctoral dissertation). University of Exeter.

Koyî, H. Q. (2007). Diwanî Hacî Qadirî Koyî. Serdar Hemîd Mîran and Kerîm Şareza (eds.), Sine: Pertook.

Kurdo, Q. (1992). Tarixa Edebyeta Kurdi. Ankara: Özge. (Frist published in 1983-5).

MacKenzie, D. N. (1986). Mala-ê Jizrî and Faqî Tayran. In Feqê Teyran Şêx Sen’an. Stock-holm: Weşanên Roja Nû. 125-30 (First published in M. Minovi and I. Afšār (eds.), (1969). Yād-nāma-ye Irāni-e Minorsky, (125-30). Tehran).

Malmîsanij. (2004). Destpêka Edebîyata Kirmanckî (Zazakî). In Yekemîn Rojên Edebiyatê Li Diyarbekirê (39-43). Stenbol: Weşanên Enstîtuya Kurdî.

Mason Jr., Th. O. (1998). The African-American Anthology: Mapping the Territory, Tak-ing the National Census, Building the Museum. American Literary History. 10(1), 185-198.

Mela Salih, H. (2007). Bêsaranî le Mêjuy Edebî Kurdî da. Raman. 127, 90-93.

Minorsky, V. (2013). Bābā-Tāhir. In Encyclopaedia of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.paulyonline.brill.nl/entries/encyclopaedia-of-silam-2/baba-tahir-COM 0080 (last accessed 10 October, 2013).

Mestûre Erdelanî. (2005). Dîwanî Mestûre. Majêd Merdûx Rûhanî (ed.), Hewlêr: Aras.

Pelc, J. (1975). Some Methodological Problems in Literary History. New Literary

History. 7(1), 89-96.

Perkins, D. (1993). Is Literary History Possible? Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.

Peterson, S. K. (1999). Yes David, It Is: A Response to David Perkin’s Work, Is Literary History Possible. (Unpublished Bachelor’s thesis). Ball State University, Indiana.

Pîremêrd. (2009). Pîremêrd û Pêdaçûneweyêkî Nwê be Jiyan û Berhemekanî. (vol. 1). Omêd Aşna (ed.), Hewlêr: Aras.

Qeredaxî, M. ‘E. (2010). Berkutêk le Xermanî Şê'rî Salim; Çepkêk Şê'rî Bilawnekirawey Salim, Paşkoyekî Diwanî Nalî. Hewlêr: Aras.

Resûl, Î. M. (1989). Edebiyatî Niwêy Kurdî. Hewlêr: Çapxaney Fêrkirdinî Balla.

Resûl, Î. M. (2012). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî. Slêmanî.

Sadjadi, B. (2006). Koliyat-e Tarīkh-e She‘r-e Kordī. Sanandaj: University of Kurdistan Press.

Sadjadi, B. (2010). Mêjûnûsî Edebî le Edebî Kurdîda: Kêşe Mêtodolojiyekan û Berew Modêlêkî Polênkiraw. In Komele Witarî Yekemîn Korrî Nêwneteweyî Edebî Kurdî (The Collected Papers of the First International Conference on Kurdish Literature), (238-258). Sanandaj: University of Kurdistan Press.

Secadî, ‘E. (2012). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî. Sine: Kurdistan Publication. (First published in 1952).

Soltanî, E. (1998). Bêsaranî ya Mehzûnî. In E. Soltanî (ed.), Keşkolle Şê'rêkî Kurdî Guranî, (61-68). London: Tirastî Son bo Kurdistan.

Srivastava, N. (2010). Anthologizing the Nation: Literature Anthologies and the Idea of India. Journal of Postcolonial Studies. 46(2), 151-163.

Temo, S. (2007). Kürt Şiiri Antolojisi. Istanbul: Weşanên Pirtukxaneya Agora.

Uzun, M. (2003). Antolojiya Edebiyata Kurdî. Istanbul: Weşanên Aram.

van Bruinessen, M. (2000). Kurdistan in the 16th and 17th Centuries as Reflected in Evliya Çelebi’s Seyahatname. The Journal of Kurdish Studies 3, 1-11.

Xeznedar, M. (1984). Li Babet Mêjûy Edebî Kurdîyewe (1984). Baghdad: Moaʿssesat al-ʿEraqiyya.

Xeznedar, M. (2001). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî (vol. 1). Hewlêr: Aras.

Xeznedar, M. (2002). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî. (vol. 2). Hewlêr: Aras.

Xeznedar, M. (2003). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî. (vol. 3). Hewlêr: Aras.

Xeznedar, M. (2004). Mêjûy Edebî Kurdî. (vol. 4). Hewlêr: Aras.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2012-2017 Kurdish Studies / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.