Mapping action and identity in the Kobani crisis response
This article compares humanitarian operations associated with Turkish state and pro-Kurdish movement actors in response to the large cross-border displacement of Kurdish-Syrians into Turkey from the September 2014 Kobani crisis. Analysis draws on actor mapping methodologies and fieldwork conducted in the Kurdish-majority town of Suruç in southern Turkey. Parallels with the 2011 Van earthquakes highlight the ethno-national complexities and potential controversy encountered when responding to humanitarian needs of predominantly Kurdish populations in Turkey. The alternative territorial identities generated by practices of Kurdish municipal-level “governmentality” (through camp management and humanitarian assistance) trouble the assumed hierarchy between Turkish state authorities and Kurdish challengers.
ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI
Bi nexşekirina çalakî û nasnameyan di hewldanên qeyrana Kobanî de
Ev gotar wan hewl û çalakiyên mirovî yên dewleta tirk û akterên hereketa kurdî berawird dike ku di hengava muhacirbûna kurdên Sûriyeyê bo nav Tirkyeyê de, anku dema qeyrana Kobanî ya îlona 2014an, hatine encamdan. Tehlîlên gotarê xwe dispêrine metodên bi nexşekirina akteran û xebata meydanî li Suruça piranî kurdnişîn. Hevterîb ligel zelzeleyên Wanê yên 2011an, gotar îşaretê bi hebûna aloziyên qewmî-neteweyî û dubendiyên cor bi cor dike gava li Tirkiyeyê hewl ji bo qetandina pêdiviyên jiyanî yên kom û xelkên kurd tên dan. Nasnameyên herêmî yên alternatîv ku encama siyaset û kiryarên “hukûmraniya” kurdî ya di asta şaredariyan de ne (bi rêya rêvebirina kempan û arîkariyên mirovî) zorê dide wê hiyerarşiya ferazî ya di navbera rayedarên dewleta tirk û berhelistkarên kurd de.
ABSTRACT IN SORANI
Abdo, M. (2014, 28 October). A Town Shouldn’t Fight the Islamic State Alone: Turkey's Obstruction of Kobani's Battle against ISIS. New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2014/10/29/opinion/turkeys-obstruction-of-kobanis-battle-against-isis.html?smprod=nytcore-ipad&smid=nytcore-ipad-share&_r=0 (last accessed 15 January 2015).
AFP (2011, 25 October). Turkey’s Ethnic Tension Boils Over in Quake-Hit City. AFP. Retrieved from www.institutkurde.org/en/info/latest/turkey-s-ethnic-tension-boils-over-in-quake-hit-city-2986.html (last accessed 26 January 2015).
Akgönül, M. S. (2011, 29 October). Major Earthquake and Political Contention in Van. Kurdish Globe. Retrieved from www.kurdishglobe.net/article/ 94484FD25B5B4 BC2F1D560A185807C96/Major-earthquake-and-political-contention-in-Van.html (last accessed 4 December 2015).
Akkaya, A. H. and Jongerden, J. (2012). Reassembling the Political: The PKK and the Project of Radical Democracy. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 14.
Ali, A. (2011). Turkey’s Foray into Africa: A New Humanitarian Power? Insight Turkey, 13(4), 65-73.
Altunışık, M. B. (2014). Turkey as an “Emerging Donor” and the Arab Uprisings. Mediterranean Politics, 19(3), 333-50.
Amnesty International (2014, August). Ethnic Cleansing on a Historic Scale: Islamic State's Systematic Targeting of Minorities in Northern Iraq. Amnesty International. Retrieved from www.es.amnesty.org/uploads/media/Iraq_ethnic_ cleansing_ final_formatted.pdf (last accessed 24 March 2016).
Anderson, M. (1999). Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - or War. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
ANF [Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê] (2014, 8 October). Kobanê Citizens in Suruç Await Solution to Lack of Shelter. Retrieved from www.en.firatajans.com/news/ news/kobane-citizens-in-suruc-await-solution-to-lack- of-shelter.htm (last accessed 7 June 2015).
Avci, İ. (2011, 26 October). Officials, Locals Highlight Problems with Distribution of Relief Packages. Today's Zaman. Retrieved from www.todayszaman.com/news-261058-officials-locals-highlight-problems-with-distribution-of-relief-packages.html (last accessed 17 November 2014).
Benthall, J. and Bellion-Jourdan, J. (2003). The Charitable Crescent: Politics of Aid in the Muslim World. New York: I. B. Tauris.
Bihar [Relief Organisation] (2014, 21 October). Multi-Sector Initial Rapid Assessment: Kobani Crisis Response.
Binder, A. (2014). The Shape and Sustainability of Turkey’s Booming Humanitarian Assistance. International Development Policy, 5(2) Retrieved from www.poldev. revues.org/1741 (last accessed 24 March 2016).
Buğra, A. and Savaşkan, O. (2014). New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Celik, S. and Corbacioglu, S. (2013). Interorganizational Coordination: Analysis of 2011 Van Earthquake. In N. Kapucu and C. Hawkins and R. Fernando (eds.), Disaster Resiliency: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, (308-33). New York: Routledge.
Çevik, S. (2014, 16 January). Turkey’s Humanitarian Assistance: The Fourth Largest Donor State. ASEM. Retrieved from www.asem.org.tr/en/publication/details /87/Turkey%E2%80%99s-Humanitarian-Assistance-The-Fourth-Largest-Donor-State#sthash.ikzEBm95.dpuf (last accessed 26 March 2015).
De Maupeou, F. (2013, 2 February). Van and the Earthquake. Mashallah News. Retrieved from www.mashallahnews.com/?p=9869 (last accessed 21 December 2014).
Dorronsoro, G. (2008). La Torture Discrète: Capital Social, Radicalisation et Désengagement Militant dans un Régime Sécuritaire. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 8.
GABB [Union of Southeastern Anatolia Region Municipalities] (2014, November). Report on Figures and Needs in the Camps of Shingalian and Kobanê People.
Gee, H. (2014, 22 December). Life in Kobani: Small town, big heart. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved from www.dw.de/life-in-kobani-small-town-big-heart/a-18145486 (last accessed 23 December 2014).
Graeber, D. (2014, 8 October). Why is the World Ignoring Revolutionary Kurds in Syria? The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/ 2014/oct/08/why-world-ignoring-revolutionary-kurds-syria-isis (last accessed October 26 2014).
Gunter, M. (1997). The Kurds and the Future of Turkey. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Heper, M. (2007). The State and Kurds in Turkey: The Question of Assimilation. London: Palgrave.
Human Rights Organisations [Helsinki Citizens Assembly, Human Rights Association, Association for Human Rights and Solidarity with the Oppressed, Human Rights Foundation of Turkey, Amnesty International Turkey, Migration Platform] (2014, 14 October). Kobanê-Suruç Visit Report 25 September 2014. Retrieved from www.en.ihd.org.tr/ index.php?option=com_content&view =article&id=762:kobane-suruc-visit-report-25-september-2014&catid=17:special-reports&Itemid=37 (last accessed January 14 2015).
Humeyr, P. and Tattersall, N. (2015, 21 May). Exclusive: Turkish Intelligence Helped Ship Arms to Syrian Islamist Rebel Areas. Reuters. Retrieved from www.reuters.com/article/2015/05/21/us-mideast-crisis-turkey-arms-idUSKBN0O61L220150521 (last accessed July 2015).
İçduygu, A. (2015, April). Syrian Refugees in Turkey: The Long Road Ahead. Transatlantic Council on Migration.
IFRC [International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies] (2012, 5 June). Emergency Appeal Operation Update; Turkey: Van Earthquake.
Ihlamur-Öner, S. G. (2013, Autumn). Turkey’s Refugee Regime Stretched to the Limit? The Case of Iraqi and Syrian Refugee Flows. Perceptions. 18(3), 191-228.
IMPR Humanitarian (2014, 28 September). Situation Analysis: Kobani Refugees in Suruc, Turkey.
James, C. and Letsch, C. (2014, 3 October). Syrian Kurds Plea for Help Defending Kobani from Isis Advance. Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/ world/2014/oct/03/syrian-kurds-plea-for-help-kobani-isis-advance (last accessed 3 January 2015).
Keyman, F. and Sazak, O. (2014, July). Turkey as a "Humanitarian State". Pomeas Policy Paper, 2. Retrieved from www.pomeas.org/Home/images/pomeas/ paper/ Paper2_POMEAS.pdf (last accessed 14 February 2016).
Kirişci, K. (2013). Syrian Refugees in Turkey: The Limits of an Open Door Policy. Brookings. Retrieved from www.brookings.edu/blogs/up-front/posts/2013/ 06/27-syrian-refugees-in-turkey-kirisci (last accessed January 15 2015).
Kirişçi, K. (2014, May). Syrian Refugees and Turkey’s Challenges: Going Beyond Hospitality. Brookings Institution Publication.
Letsch, C. (2013, 8 November). Turkey's New Border Wall Angers Kurds on Both Sides of Syrian Divide. The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/ world/2013/nov/08/turkey-new-border-wall-kurds-syria (last accessed 7 March 2015).
Malkki, L. (1992). National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity among Scholars and Refugees. Cultural Anthropology, 7(1), 24-44.
Marcus, A. (2007). Blood and Belief: The PKK and the Kurdish Fight for Independence. New York: New York University Press.
McClelland, M. (2014, 13 February). How to Build a Perfect Refugee Camp. New York Times. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2014/02/16/magazine/how-to-build-a-perfect-refugee-camp.html (last accessed 25 November 2015).
Mimarlar Odası (2012, 20 January). Van Depremi Hasar Tespit Raporu. Ankara: TMMOB.
Montgomery, K. (2014, 9 October). 180,000 Refugees from Kobani Mark the Biggest Displacement in the Biggest Refugee Crisis, Ever, Syria Deeply. Retrieved from www.syriadeeply.org/articles/2014/10/6219/180000-refugees-kobani-mark-biggest-displacement-biggest-refugee-crisis (last accessed 14 January 2015).
OHCHR (2011). Manual on Human Rights Monitoring. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
Olson, R. (1989). The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880-1925. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Onur, M. (2011, 3 November). Van Earthquake Exposes Turkey’s Ethnic Fault Lines. Jadaliyya. Retrieved from www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/3045/van-earthquake-exposes-turkeys-ethnic-fault-lines (last accessed 7 November 2014).
Özdamar, Ö. and Taydaş, Z. (2013). A Divided Government, an Ideological Parliament, and an Insecure Leader: Turkey's Indecision about Joining the Iraq War. Social Science Quarterly, 94(1), 217-241.
Özden, Ş. (2013). Syrian Refugees in Turkey. Migration Policy Centre. Retrieved from www.migrationpolicycentre.eu/docs/MPC-RR-2013-05.pdf (last accessed 19 January 2015).
Özerdem, A. and Özerdem, F. (2013). Human Security in Turkey: Challenges for the 21st century. New York: Routledge.
Özerdem, A. and Jacoby, T. (2006). Disaster Management and Civil Society: Earthquake Relief in Japan, Turkey and India. London: I.B. Tauris.
Özkan, G. and Demirtepe, M. T. (2012). Transformation of a Development Aid Agency: TİKA in a Changing Domestic and International Setting. Turkish Studies, 13(4), 647-664.
Ozkapici, D. (2012). Coordination of International Humanitarian Relief Support after Van (Turkey) Earthquake. In Conference on Health and Humanitarian Logistics: Creating Sustainable Supply Systems for Delivering Humanitarian Assistance.
Paker, H. (2007, July). Reflection of the State in the Turkish Red Crescent: From Modernization to Corruption to Reform? Middle Eastern Studies, 43(4), 647-60.
Peteet, J. (2005). Words as Interventions: Naming in the Palestine-Israeli Conflict. Third World Quarterly, 26, 153-72.
Reach Out (2005). Refugee Protection: Actors and Roles. A Refugee Protection Training Project.
Romano, D. (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salih, M. (2014, 23 December). Kurds draw pride from defense of Kobani. al-Monitor. Retrieved from www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/12/syria-kobani-kurdish-fighters-islamic-state.html (last accessed 27 December 2014).
Schäfers, M. (2016). Ruined Futures: Managing Instability in Post-Earthquake Van (Turkey). Social Anthropology, 24(2), 1-15.
Schulz, H. and Hammer, J. (2003). The Palestinian Diaspora: Formation of Identities and Politics of Homeland. London: Routledge.
Sharifi, A. (2011, 1 November). The Van Earthquake: The Politics of Disaster. Kurdish Aspect. Retrieved from www.kurdishaspect.com/doc110111AS.html (last accessed 2 January 2015).
Spencer, R. and Samaan, M. (2014, 30 October). First Kurdish reinforcements cross Turkish border to Kobane. Telegraph. Retrieved from www.telegraph.co.uk/ news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/11199246/First-Kurdish-reinforcements-cross-Turkish-border-to-Kobane.html (last accessed 28 November 2014).
Tank, P. (2015, March). Turkey as a Humanitarian actor: The Critical Cases of Somalia and Syria. Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre.
Taskin, B., Sezen, A., Tugsal, U. M. and Erken, A. (2012). The Aftermath of 2011 Van Earthquakes: Evaluation of Strong Motion, Geotechnical and Structural Issues. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 11(1), 285-312.
Tilly, C. (2008). Contentious Performances. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Turan, M. (2012, November). Lessons Learnt from Van and Erciş Earthquakes 2011, Turkey: An Evaluation of Disaster Management. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(22), 42-52.
TUSEV [Türkiye Üçüncü Sektör Vakfı] (2013). The Van Earthquake and CSOs: Case Analysis. Civil Society Monitoring Report 2012.
Üngör, U. Ü. (2008). Geographies of Nationalism and Violence: Rethinking Young Turk “Social Engineering”. European Journal of Turkish Studies, 7.
UNHCR (2014a, 23 September). External update on influx of Syrian refugees UNHCR Representation in Turkey.
UNHCR (2014b, 29 September). External update on influx of Syrian refugees UNHCR Representation in Turkey.
Vali, A. (1998). The Kurds and their "Others": Fragmented Identity and fragmented Politics. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18(2), 83-94.
Vela, J. (2013, 22 June). The Syrian Supply Chain. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from www.foreignpolicy.com/2013/06/22/the-syrian-supply-chain (last accessed 23 February 2016).
Vela, J. (2014, January 14). Gaza Flotilla Charity Targeted in Turkey Power Tussle. The National. Retrieved from www.thenational.ae/world/turkey/gaza-flotilla-charity-targeted-in-turkey-power-tussle (last accessed 24 August 2015).
Wasserman, S. and Faust, K. (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Watts, N. (2009). Re-Considering State-Society Dynamics in Turkey’s Kurdish Southeast. European Journal of Turkish Studies. 10.
Watts, N. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
White, P. (2000). Primitive Rebels or Revolutionary Modernizers: The Kurdish National Movement in Turkey. London: Zed Books.
WSJ (2010, 3 June). Turkey's Radical Drift. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704535004575349031510961398 (last accessed 11 September 2015).
Zaré, M. and Nazmazar, B. (2013). Van, Turkey Earthquake of 23 October 2011, Mw 7.2: An Overview on Disaster Management. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(2), 134-44.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2012-2017 Kurdish Studies / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.