Kurdish Studies http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks <div style="clear: left;"><div class="Kurdish Studies"><a class="action" href="http://www.kurdishstudies.net"><img style="float: left; margin-right: 10px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/sirkeci/ks_cover.png" alt="Kurdish Studies" height="347" /></a><p><span><span><strong>Kurdish Studies </strong> journal is an interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing high quality research and scholarship. Kurdish Studies journal is initiated by the members of the Kurdish Studies Network (KSN) and supported by a large group of academics from different disciplines. The journal aligns itself with KSN's mission to revitalize and reorient research, scholarship and debates in the field of Kurdish Studies in a multidisciplinary fashion covering a wide range of topics including, but not limited to, economics, history, society, gender, minorities, politics, health, law, environment, language, media, culture, arts, and education.</span></span></p><p><strong>Kurdish Studies</strong> is indexed and abstracted in <strong>ESCI</strong> (Emerging Sources Citation Index),<strong> SCOPUS</strong>, <strong>EBSCO</strong> Electronic Journals Service (EJS), <strong>ERIH Plus</strong>, Index <strong>Copernicus</strong>, <strong>Norwegian Register</strong>, and Research Papers in Economics (<strong>RePEc</strong>) and other services.</p></div></div> Transnational Press London en-US Kurdish Studies 2051-4883 <p><strong>Terms and conditions associated with Transnational Press London Journals Transfer of Copyright Agreement</strong></p><p>Copyright to the unpublished and original article submitted by the author(s), the abstract forming part thereof, and any subsequent errata (collectively, the “Article”) is hereby transferred to the Transnational Press London (TPL) for the full term thereof throughout the world, subject to the Author Rights (as hereinafter defined) and to acceptance of the Article for publication in a journal of TPL. 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Nothing in this Section shall prevent TPL (and its successors and assigns) from exercising its rights in the Article.</li></ol><p>All copies of part or all of the Article made under any of the Author Rights shall include the appropriate bibliographic citation and notice of the TPL copyright.</p><p>By submitting a paper to the TPL journal, authors agree to this Agreement, and represent and warrant that the Article is original with the author(s) and does not infringe any copyright or violate any other right of any third parties, and that the Article has not been published elsewhere, and is not being considered for publication elsewhere in any form, except as provided herein. The submitting author(s) also represent and warrant that they have the full power to enter into this Agreement and to make the grants contained herein.</p> Editorial http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/1029 <p>The three articles published in this issue cover a wide range of topics. Sociologist Joost Jongerden’s article, “<em>A spatial perspective on political group formation in Turkey after the 1971 coup: The Kurdistan Workers’ Party of Turkey (PKK)”</em>, examines the Kurdistan Revolutionaries, the milieu from which the PKK emerged in 1978. The second article in our October issue shifts focus to the Kurdish diaspora in Europe. Psychologists Ruth Kevers, Peter Rober and Lucia De Haene in their collaborative piece titled <em>“</em><em>The role of collective identifications in family processes of post-trauma reconstruction: An exploratory study of Kurdish refugee families and their diasporic community”</em>, engage in the study of a group of five families in Belgium. The third article in our issue is titled <em>“</em><em>Kurds in the USSR, 1917-1956”</em> and penned by J. Otto Pohl, a historian of the Soviet Union. </p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-25 2017-10-25 5 2 105 106 The role of collective identifications in family processes of post-trauma reconstruction: An exploratory study with Kurdish refugee families and their diasporic community http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/868 <p><span>While collective identifications of diasporic Kurds have attracted considerable scholarly interest, their possible role in familial processes of post-trauma reconstruction has hardly been studied. The aim of this article is therefore to develop an explorative understanding of the deployment and meaning of collective identifications in intimate family contexts by examining the interconnectedness between the transmission of cultural and political belonging and post-trauma meaning-making and coping in Kurdish refugee families. After contextualising diasporic Kurds’ collective identifications through an ethnographic depiction of the Kurdish diasporic community in Belgium, this article reports on findings from a small-scale, exploratory study with five Kurdish refugee families in Belgium. Thematic analysis of family and parent interviews indicates how cultural and political identifications may operate as sources of (1) dealing with cultural bereavement and loss; (2) commemorating trauma; and (3) reversing versus reiterating trauma. Overall, this study’s findings support an explorative understanding of collective identifications as meaningful resources in families’ post-trauma reconstruction.</span></p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI</strong></p><h4>Rola nasnameyên komelî di pêvajoyên malbatî yên vesazkirina paş-trawmayê de: Xebateke raveker li ser malbatên kurd ên penaber û civakên wan ên dîasporayê</h4><p>Tevî ku nasnameyên komelî yên kurdên dîasporayê ta radeyeke baș bûye mijara lêkolînan, rola wan a muhtemel di pêvajoyên malbatî yên vesazkirina (selihandin) paş-trawmayê qet nehatine vekolîn. Lewma armanca vê gotarê ew e têgihiştineke raveker pêş bixe li ser rol û wateya nasnameyên komelî yên di çarçoveya mehremiya malbatê de, ku vê yekê jî dê bi rêya vekolîna wê têkiliya rijd bike ya di navbera neqlkirina aidiyetên çandî-siyasî û rêyên sazkirina wateyê û serederîkirina li dû trawmayê di nav malbatên kurd ên penaber de. Piştî diyarkirina çarçoveya nasnameya komelî ya Kurdên diasporayê bi rêya teswîreke etnografîk a cemaeta diasporaya Kurd li Belçîkayê, ev gotar encamên ji xebateke biçûk a bi pênc malbatên kurd ên penaber ên li Belçîkayê pêşkêş dike. Tehlîla babetî ya hevpeyvînên ligel malbatan û dayik û bavan nîşan dide ka çawa nasnameyên çandî û siyasî dikarin bibin çavkanî ji bo (1) serederîkirina bi mehrûmiyeta çandî û windahiyên xwe; (2) bibîranîna trawmayê; û (3) kêmrengkirin an, beramber vê yekê, dubarekirina trawmayê. Bi giştî, encamên vê xebatê wê têgihiştineke raveker tesdîq dikin ku nasnameyên kolektîf çavkaniyên kêrhatî ne di vesazkirina paş-trawmayê ya malbatan de.</p><p> </p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN SORANI</strong></p><h4>Dewrî nasname bekomellekan le prose binemalleyîyekanî sazkirdinewey paş-trawmayîda: lêkollîneweyekî şirovekarî binemalle penabere kurdekan û civatî ewan le diyaspora</h4><p>Le katêkda nasname bekomellekanî kurdekanî diyaspora le layen şarezakanewe giringîyekî berçawî pê drawe û serincî ewanî bo lay xoyî rakêşawe, bellam sebaret be egerî dewrî prose binemalleyîyekanî sazkirdinewey paş-tirawma be degmen lêkollîneweyek encam drawe. Ke wate, amancî em wutare perepêdan be têgeyîştinêkî şirovekarane lemerr bekarhênan û manay nasname bekomellekan le bestênekanî têkellawîy binemalleyîdaye, ke le rêgey peywendîy nêwan rewtî gwastineweyî grêdraweyî kultûrî û siyasî, sazbûnî mana û herweha rahatin legell kêşekanî qonaẍî paş tirawma le binemalle kurde penaberekanda taqî krawetewe. Dway awirrdanewe le civakî diyasporay kurd le Belcîka, nasname bekomellekanî kurdekanî diyaspora le bestênî xoyda xwêndinewey bo krawe û bem gêreye lem wutareda lêkollîneweyekî şirovekarane bo qebareyekî biçûk le pênc binemalley kurdî penaber le Belcîka dekrê û encamekanî billaw dekrêtewe. Şîkarîyekî babetiyaney wutuwêj legell binemalle û dayk û bawkekan nîşanî dedat ke çon dekrê nasname kultûrî û siyasîyekan wek serçaweyek bo em sê mijare derbikewn: (1) gîrodebûn be ledestçûn û bizirbûnî kultûr; (2) webîrhênanewey tirawma; û (3) pêçewanebûnî tirawma leberamber dûbarebûneweyda. Beşêweyekî giştî, encamekanî em lêkollîneweye piştgîrî le têgeyîştinêkî şirovekarane le nasname bekomellekan dekat ke wekû serçaweyekî giring bo sazkirdinewey binemallekan le dway qonaẍî paş-tirawma seyr dekrêt.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 107 133 A spatial perspective on political group formation in Turkey after the 1971 coup: The Kurdistan Workers Party of Turkey (PKK) http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/887 <p>The five years preceding the 1978 founding congress of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (<em>Partîya Karkêren Kurdistan</em>, PKK) are referred to by its members as the party’s “existential period”. In the PKK’s “existential period” public spaces, such as university dormitories and canteens and student associations played an important role as meeting places, yet political formation occurred mainly in private spaces, especially private apartments and houses. This article considers this early history of the PKK from a spatial perspective. The main question addressed is how the Kurdistan Revolutionaries, as the group was known before its formal establishment, sustained itself spatially at a time when political life had been paralysed as a result of martial law and became subject to securitisation politics. Data for this article has been collected by means of interviews and the study of (auto)biographical texts.</p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI</strong></p><h4>Nêrîneke mekanî li ser avabûna komên siyasî li Tirkiyeyê piştî derbeya 1971ê: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan a Tirkiyeyê (PKK)</h4><p>5 salên beriya 1978an, berî kongreya avabûna Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, ji teref endamên wê ve wek qonaxa hebûnî ya partiyê tê nîşankirin. Di ‘qonaxa hebûnî’ ya PKKê de roleke girîng a mekanên giştî yên wek xewgeh û kantîn û komeleyên xwendekaran li zanîngehan hebû lewre ew wek cihên civînê bûn, lê avabûna siyasî esasen li mekanên taybet, bi taybetî jî li mal û xaniyên taybet çêbû. Ev gotar wê dîroka pêşîn a PKKê bi nêrîneke mekanî dinirxîne. Pirsa bingehîn ew e ka Şoreşgerên Kurdistanê, wek ku berî avabûna xwe ya fermî dihatin zanîn, piştî ku jiyana siyasî ji ber qanûnên şer felc bûbû û tûşî siyaseteke rijd a asayîşê dibû, çawa karîn xwe li ser piya bigirin. Daneyên vê gotarê bi rêya hevpeyvînan û xebatên (oto)biyografîk hatine berhevkirin.</p><p> </p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN SORANI</strong></p><h4>Rwangeyekî şwênmend sebaret be drûstbûnî grupêkî siyasî le Turkiyay dway kudetay 1971: Partî Kirêkaranî Kurdistan le Turkiya (PKK)</h4><p>Mawey pênc sallî pêş le damezranî kongrey Partî Kirêkaranî Kurdistan le sallî 1978, le layen endamanî em ḧîzbewey wekû “qonaẍî wucûdî” amajey pê dekrê. Lem “qonaẍe wucûdîyey” Partî Kirêkaranî Kurdistan feza giştîyekan, wekû jûre nawxoyîyekanî zankokan, çêştxorîyekan û encûmene xwêndkarîyekan dewrêkî giringyan wek şwênî kobûnewe debînî, le katêkda ta ew qonaẍe riskanî siyasî zortir le feza taybetekan, be taybet apartman û mallî şexsîy hawwillatiyan debînra. Em wutare le rwangeyekî şwênmendewe serincî mêjûy seretayî PKK dedat. Pirsyarî serekîy em twêjînewe bo ewe degerrêtewe ke çon şorrişgêrranî Kurdistan, pêş lewey be resmî  wekû grupêk dabimezrên denasran, û herweha le ruwî şwênî çalakîyewe çon ewan twaniyan xoyan rabigirin le katêkda jiyanî siyasî,  wek babetî siyasetêkî emnîyewe seyr dekra û le derencamî maddeyekî yasayîyewe îflîc kirabû. Datay em wutare le rêgey wutuwêj û lêkollînewey deqekanî (xo)jiyanînamekanewe ko kirawetewe.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 134 156 Kurds in the USSR, 1917-1956 http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/913 <p><span>Soviet policy towards its Kurds fluctuated and remained fragmented, ambivalent, and inconsistent throughout the existence of the USSR. On one hand, the Soviet government provided for the material and cultural development of Kurds in Armenia and Azerbaijan during the 1920s and 1930s. On the other hand, in 1937 it deported a number of Kurds from Azerbaijan and in 1944 an even larger number from Georgia to Kazakhstan and Central Asia as special settlers. The Soviet government only freed Kurdish special settlers from the legal restrictions limiting their movement and other rights in April 1956. Former Kurdish special settlers, however, could not return to the Caucasus. The Kurds remained a diaspora group in the USSR without any national territory and only limited cultural institutions. Only in the late 1980s did this situation change.</span></p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI</strong></p><h4>Kurd li Yekîtiya Komarên Sosyalîst ên Sovyetan ji 1917 heta 1956</h4><p>Siyaseta Sovyetan beramber kurdên xwe, di hemû tarîxa YKSS de, pir caran guherî û hergav pirserî, xumam û nelihev bû. Li milekî, salên 1920an û 1930yan, dewleta Sovyetê îmkan dabîn kirin ji bo pêşketina çandî û samanî ya kurdên Ermenistan û Azerbeycanê. Li milê din, heman dewletê sala 1937an hejmareke kurdên Azerbeycanê û sala 1944an jî hejmareke pir mezintir a kurdên Gurcistanê wek muhacirên taybet şandine Qazaxistan û Asyaya Navendî. Dewleta Sovyetê şertên taybet ên li ser kurdên muhacir, yên ku bo nimûne nedihêlan ew ji cihekî biçin cihên din, bes di nîsana 1956an de rakirin. Lê belê, muhacirên kurd ên destê pêşiyê nekarîn bizivirine Qefqazyayê. Kurd li YKSS wek cemaeteke diasporayê veman bêyî ti erdekî xwe yê neteweyî û bi tenê bi hindek dezgehên çandî. Bi tenê salên dawî yên 1980an ev rewş guherî.</p><p> </p><p><strong>ABSTRACT IN SORANI</strong></p><h4>Kurd le Yekyetî Sovîyet 1917 ta 1956</h4><p>Siyasetî Yekîyetî Sovyet le beramber Kurdekanî xoyda berz û nizmî be xoyewe bînîwe û le hemû temenî Yekîyetî Sovîyetda be şêweyekî natewaw, rarrayî û neguncaw mayewe. Le layenêkewe, ḧikumetî Yekîyetî Sovîyet, le nêwan sallekanî 1920 û 1930ekan, helumercî bo geşey binerretî û kultûrîy Kurdekan le Ermeniya û Azerbaycan rexisand. Le layenêkî tirewe, le sallî 1937 jimareyek le Kurdekanî le Azerbaycan derkird û tenanet le sallî 1944 jimareyekî zor ziyatir lewanî, wekû koçerî taybet, le Corciyawe rewaney Qezaxistan û Asyay Nawendî kird. Tenya le aprîlî 1956da, ḧikumetî Yekîyetî Sovîyet berbende yasayîyekanî le ser azadî hatûçû û mafekanî tirî em koçere taybetane hellweşandewe. Bellam, ew kurdaney ke pêştir kirabûn be koçer yan nêştecêy taybet boyan nebû bigerrênewe bo nawçey Qefqaz. Kurdekan wekû grupêkî diyaspora le Yekîyetî Sovîyetda manewe, bê ewey herêmêkî nîştimanîyan hebê û tenya çend enistîtoyekî kultûrîy sinûrdaryan pê dra. Tenya le kotayî heştakanî sedey bîstemda doxeke gorrankarî beserda hat.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 157 171 In Memoriam: Amir Hassanpour (1943-2017) http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/1005 <span>This tribute memorialises Professor Amir Hassanpour (1943-2017) a pioneer of Kurdish sociolinguistics, an influential advocate of Kurdish studies, a public intellectual, and a visionary humanist. As a scholar, his contributions are wide and varied and have had a significant impact, broadening our knowledge of the Kurdish history, nationalism, language, media, gender, social structures and movements. He will be remembered for raising and transforming the consciousness of the academic community regarding the rightful place of the Kurdish language and studies. As a revolutionary, Hassanpour played a key role in studying, organising, and leading social movements. He was truly an inspiration to many young researchers and political activists, a heroic man with a lifelong commitment to justice and a new vision of communism.</span> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 172 186 Kurdish Studies in Russian Language: 1917-2017 http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/991 <p><span>Kurdish Studies, as an academic field, seems today to be dominated by English and Turkish-language literature. Little is known about the volume of literature that has been produced (and is available) in Russian, an important world language spoken across a vast geographic space in regions not far from Kurdish lands. In this review, we have explored this published literature by using searches in Google Scholar. We present the results of this inquiry, as a simple inventory which shall serve to acknowledge and highlight the Russian-language scholarship on the Kurds, Kurdish and Kurdistan. It shows that access to this scholarship is paramount if we want to arrive at a more global understanding of the issues related to the Kurds and Kurdish studies</span>.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 187 198 On the independence referendum in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and disputed territories in 2017 http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/1031 <p><span>On 25th September 2017, the eligible voters of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were given the opportunity to respond ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to the question, posed in Kurdish, Turkmen, Arabic and Assyrian: “Do you want the Kurdistan Region and the Kurdistani areas outside the administration of the Region to become an independent state?” The aim of this note is to give an empirically focussed account of the independence referendum. The note has been written by four members of a delegation which spent one week in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) with the purpose of observing the referendum. The key point that we draw from these observations is that the referendum and associated aspiration for independence, which potentially could have unified the different political factions in the KRI, has in fact cruelly exposed divisions.</span></p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 199 214 Book reviews http://www.tplondon.com/journal/index.php/ks/article/view/1030 <p>Andrea Fischer-Tahir and Sophie Wagenhofer (edsF), <strong>Disciplinary Spaces: Spatial Control, Forced Assimilation and Narratives of Progress since the 19th Century</strong>, <em>Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2017, 300 pp., (ISBN: 978-3-8376-3487-7)</em>.</p><p>Ayşegül Aydın and Cem Emrence, <strong>Zones of Rebellion: Kurdish Insurgents and the Turkish State</strong>, <em>Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2015</em>,<em> 192 pp., (ISBN: 978-0-801-45354-0).</em></p><p>Evgenia I. Vasil’eva, <strong>Yugo-Vostochniy Kurdistan v XVI-XIX vv. </strong><strong>Istochnik po Istorii Kurdskikh Emiratov Ardelan i Baban</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>[South-Eastern Kurdistan in the XVI-XIX<sup>th</sup> cc. A Source for the Study of Kurdish Emirates of Ardal</strong><strong>ā</strong><strong>n and Bābān]</strong>, <em>St Petersburg: Nestor-Istoria, 2016. 176</em><em> pp., (ISBN </em><em>978-5-4469-0775-5).</em></p><p>Karin Mlodoch,<strong> The Limits of Trauma Discourse: Women Anfal Survivors in Kurdistan-Iraq, </strong><em>Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 2014, 541 pp., (ISBN: 978-3-87997-719-2).</em></p><p> </p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-26 2017-10-26 5 2 215 226