Dearly Deported: Social Citizenship of Undocumented Minors in the US

Keywords: Deportation, social citizenship, minors, Cape Verde, Kennesaw State University


First-second generation undocumented minors to the US are considered through an experiential-style “letter” in which the author uses his personal narrative as a backdrop for the deportation dilemma. The two primary questions considered in this piece are, can compassion play a role in policy decisions regarding deportation, and what happens when a person develops social citizenship within the host nation and then experiences deportation as a result of a fairly rigid world system? The focus is on the individual costs of forced migration when the promises of a new world order lead to alienation for the peoples of the Global South.


Adebayo, Akanmu G., and Olutayo C. Adesina, eds. (2009). Globalization and Transnational Migrations: Africa and Africans in the Contemporary Global System. UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Appadurai, Arjun (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Associated Press (2002). “Lawyers Eye Old Cases to Prevent Deportation of Felons”, Associated Press Newswires, December 28.
Associated Press (2010). “Regents ban illegal immigrants from some Ga. Colleges”, Richmond Times-Dispatch, October 13.
Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Szanton-Blanc (1994). Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Richard Nice (transl). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brettell, Caroline B. (1979). “Emigrar para voltar: A Portuguese Ideology of Return Migration”, Papers in Anthropology, 20 (1): 1-20.
Brettell, Caroline B. (2002). “Migrants and Transmigrants, Borders and Identity: Anthropology and the New Immigration”, Reviews in Anthropology, 31: 277-289.
Brettell, Caroline B. (2006). “Wrestling with 9/11: Immigration Perceptions and Perceptions of Immigrants”, Migration Letters, 3 (2): 107-124.
Brooks, George E. (2006). “Cabo Verde: Gulag of the South Atlantic: Racism, Fishing Prohibitions, and Famines”, History in Africa, 33: 101-135.
Brown, Robbie (2010). “Student’s Arrest Tests Immigration Policy”, The New York Times, May 14.
Carter, Katherine, and Judy Aulette (2009). Cape Verdean Women and Globalization: The Politics of Gender, Culture, and Resistance. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cohen, Jeffrey H. (2006). “Where do they go? ‘A day without a Mexican,’ a per-spective from south of the border”, Migration Letters, 3 (1): 77-86.
Cohen, Jeffrey H., Bernardo Rios, and Lise Byars (2009). “The value, costs, and meaning of transnational migration in rural Oaxaca, Mexico”, Migration Let-ters, 6 (1): 15-25.
Cook, Rhonda, and Andria Simmons (2010). “Illegal immigrant KSU student hopes to stay in U.S.”, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 14.
Diaz, Jonny (2004). “Not White, Not Black, Not Hispanic – Boston’s Cape Verdeans Have Long Been Misunderstood. One Thing They Could Use: A Little Respect”, The Boston Globe, February 15. p. 1.
Ferguson, James (2006). Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fikes, Kesha (2009). Managing African Portugal: The Citizen-Migrant Distinction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Foucault, Michel (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Alan Sheridan (transl). NY: Vintage.
Foy, Colm (1988). Cape Verde: Politics, Economics, and Society. NY: Pinter Publishers.
Garefino, Allison C. (2009). Behavioral and Academic Competencies Associated with English Language Learner Status. PhD thesis, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.
Gilroy, Paul (1991). “It Ain’t Where You’re From, It’s Where You’re At . . .: The Dialectics of Diasporic Identification”, Third Text, 13: 3-16.
Gmelch, George (1980). “Return Migration”, Annual Review of Anthropology, 9: 135-139.
Gordon, April (1998). “The New Diaspora-African Immigration to the United States”, Journal of Third World Studies, 15 (1): 79-103.
Greer, Scott L., ed. (2009). Devolution and Social Citizenship in the UK. Portland, OR: The Policy Press.
Hall, Stuart (1990). “Cultural Identity and Diaspora”, in Jonathan Rutherford (ed) Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, Pp. 222-237. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
Hill, Jonathan D. and Thomas M. Wilson (2003). “Identity Politics and the Politics of Identities”, Identities: Global Studies in Power and Culture, 10 (1): 1-8.
Marshall, Thomas Humphrey, and Tom Bottomore (1992[1950]). Citizenship and Social Class. Concord, MA: Pluto Press.
Ong, Aihwa (1996). “Cultural Citizenship as Subject-Making: Immigrants Negotiate Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the United States”, Current Anthropology, 37 (5): 737-762.
Papp, Daniel S. (2010). “Statement from President Papp to the campus community on Jessica Colotl”,, May 18.
Phelan, Patricia, Ann Lock Davidson, and Hanh Cao Yu (1998). Adolescents’ Worlds: Negotiating Family, Peers, and School. NY: Teachers College Press.
Phelan, Patricia, Ann Lock Davidson, and Hanh Thanh Cao (1991). “Students’ Multiple Worlds: Negotiating the Boundaries of Family, Peer, and School Cultures”, Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 22 (3): 224-250.
Radin, Charles A. (1999). “A Homeland, But Not Home: Deported, Young Cape Verdeans Face Grim Realities”, The Boston Globe, September 6. p. A1.
Redmon, Jeremy (2011). “Gingrey, Woodall seek to deny U.S. citizenship for children of illegal immigrants”, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, January 7.
Rodkey, Evin (2009). “Life After Deportation: Transnational Survival Strategies of Dominican Deportees”, paper presented at 108th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Philadelphia, PA, December 2.
Rodney, Walter (1981[1972]). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Revised Edition. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
Rodrigues, Isabel P. B. Fêo (2008). “From Silence to Silence: The Hidden Story of a Beef Stew in Cape Verde”, Anthropological Quarterly, 81 (2): 343-376.
Safran, William (1991). “Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return,” Diaspora, 1 (1): 83-99.
Seligson, Mitchell A., and John T. Passé-Smith, eds. (2008). Development and Under-development: The Political Economy of Global Inequality. Fourth Edition. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Svasek, Maruska (2002). “Narratives of ‘Home’ and ‘Homeland’”, Identities: Global Studies in Power and Culture, 9 (4): 495-518.
Torpey, John (1998). “Coming and Going: On the State Monopolization of the Legitimate ‘Means of Movement’”, Sociological Theory, 16 (3): 239-259.
Torpey, John (2000). The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
UN News Service (2007). “UN advocate salutes Cape Verde’s graduation from category of poorest States”, UN News Centre, June 14.
Wang, Horng-Iuen (2004). “Regulating Transnational Flows of People: An Institutional Analysis of Passports and Visas as a Regime of Mobility”, Identities: Global Studies in Power and Culture, 11 (3): 351-376.