Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Socio-economic Perspective on the Urbanisation of Zaatari Camp in Jordan

Ayham Dalal

Abstract


Camps are temporal spaces where refugees are provided with humanitarian aid until durable solutions are made possible. During this period of ‘endless waiting’, these camps are planned to be economically self-contained. However, through time, refugee camps tend to urbanise: their initial empty spaces transform into vibrant markets, habitats and social spaces. In response to this ‘unexpected’ - and sometimes ‘unwanted’ - process, the economically self-contained system of camps breaks. This paper looks into the emerging socio-economic dynamics in Zaatari camp in Jordan, on the light of its urbanisation process and the Jordanian economy. It first explains the how humanitarian aid is provided, and then shows how and why, refugees use it to diversify the economy of the camp. The findings of this paper are then articulated on the existing policies to reduce the financial aid such as ‘self-reliance’ and ‘development’.


Keywords


Syrian refugees; Zaatari; camps; urbanisation; socio-economics; self-reliance; UNHCR; development

Full Text:

Download PDF

References


ACTED. (2013). Livelihoods Assessment Za’atari Camp in August 2013.

Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Retrieved from http://www.thing.net/~rdom/ucsd/biopolitics/HomoSacer.pdf

Agier, M. (2002). Between War and City Towards an Urban Anthropology of Refugee Camps. Ethnography, 3, 317–341. Retrieved from http://eth.sagepub.com/content/3/3/317.short

Agier, M. (2011). Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government. Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews. Polity. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=f7_QrXJUhysC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=Managing+the+Undesirables&ots=K9d_lvF36j&sig=PV9EDAN5_ehSObG4_ROqSXE4N1U

Agier, M. (2012). From Refuge the Ghetto Is Born: Contemporary Figures of Heterotopias. The Ghetto: Contemporary Global Issues and …, 265–292. Retrieved from http://www.campusincamps.ps/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Agier-ghetto-eng.pdf

Al-Qutub, I. (1989). Refugee camp cities in the Middle East: a challenge for urban development policies. International Sociology. doi:10.1177/026858089004001006

Al-Rai. (2012). افتتاح مخيم الزعتري لإيواء اللاجئين السوريين | جريدة الرأي. Retrieved May 19, 2014, from http://www.alrai.com/article/530134.html

Bussolini, J. (2010). What is a Dispositive? Foucault Studies, (November 2010), 85–107. Retrieved from http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/foucault-studies/article/viewArticle/3120

Dalal, A. (2013). The Emergence of Habitat in Zaatari Camp in Jordan: Between Humanitarian and Socio-Cultural Order. Trialog, 112/113(1-2), 43–48.

Dalal, A. (2014). Camp Cities between Planning and Practice: Mapping the Urbanisation of Zaatari Camp. Stuttgart University & Ain Shams University.

DiBella, J. (2007). Mapping and Profiling Entrepreneur Activity at Al-Deheisheh Refugee Camp in the West Bank, opt. Revue médicale du Moyen-Orient (Vol. 14). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13528320

Foucault, M., & Miskowiec, J. (1986). Of other spaces. Diacritics, (March 1967). Retrieved from http://www.cairn.info/revue-empan-2004-2-page-12.htm

Freihat, M. (2014). Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Economic risks and Opportunities | Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ). Retrieved June 28, 2014, from http://arij.net/en/syrian-refugees-jordan-economic-risks-and-opportunities

Grbac, P. (2013). Civitas, polis, and urbs: Reimagining the refugee camp as the city. Refugee Studies Center, (October 2013).

Herz, M. (2012). From Camp to City: Refugee Camps of Western Sahara. (M. Herz, Ed.). Lars Müller Publishers.

Hunter, M. (2009). The Failure of Self-reliance in refugee Settlements. POLIS Journal, 1–46. Retrieved from http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/students/student-journal/ma-winter-09/meredith-hunter-winter-09.pdf

Hyndman, J. (1997). Refugee Self-Management and the Question of Governance Refugee Camps Kenya, 1(2).

Isin, E., & Rygiel, K. (2007). Abject spaces: frontiers, zones, camps. Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror, 181–203. Retrieved from http://oro.open.ac.uk/9836/

Kennedy, J. (2004). Towards a Rationalisation of the Construction of Refugee Camps, 1–135. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Towards+A+Rationalisation+of+the+Construction+of+Refugee+Camps#0

Lefebvre, H., Kofman, E., & Lebas, E. (1996). Writings on cities. Retrieved from http://jft-newspaper.aub.edu.lb/reserve/data/s09290/s09290.pdf

Mercy Corps. (2007). Guide to cash-for-work programming. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Guide+to+Cash-for-Work+Programming#0

MercyCorps. (2013). Mapping of Host Community-Refugee Tensions in Mafraq and Ramtha , JORDAN. (pp. 1–23).

Minca, C. (2005). The return of the Camp. Progress in Human Geography, 29(4), 405–412. doi:10.1191/0309132505ph557xx

Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. (2010). The Informal Sector in the Jordanian Economy (pp. 1–56).

Misselwitz, P. (2009). Rehabilitating Camp Cities: community driven planning for urbanised refugee camps. Retrieved from http://elib.uni-stuttgart.de/opus/volltexte/2009/3949/

Montclos, M. -a. P. D., & Kagwanja, P. M. (2000). Refugee Camps or Cities? The Socio-economic Dynamics of the Dadaab and Kakuma Camps in Northern Kenya. Journal of Refugee Studies, 13(2), 205–222. doi:10.1093/jrs/13.2.205

NRC. (2013). Syrian Refugees Youth Needs Assessment Study: Irbid & Zaatari (Draft) (pp. 1–47).

Oxford University. (2012). Protracted Refugee Situations: Understanding and addressing the challenge: Protracted Refugee Situations. Retrieved August 03, 2014, from http://www.prsproject.org/protracted-refugee-situations/

Petti, A., & Hilal, S. (2013). Beyond the Public: a common space in Fawaar refugee camp (pp. 1–10).

REACH, & UNHCR. (2013). Al Za’atari Camp Sweep Report: A shelter and NFIs assessment for winterization programming (p. 14).

Tiltnes, Å. (2007). A Socio-economic Profile of the Nahr El-Bared and Beddawi Refugee Camps of Lebanon. Oslo: Fafo. Retrieved from http://www.lebanon-support.org/sites/default/files/old/resources/NahrElBared/Fafo-paper 2007-16 - Beddawi %26 Nahr El-Bared.pdf

UN. (2014a). 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan.

UN. (2014b). 2014 Syria Regional Response Plan: Jordan.

UNDP. (2012). UNDP/UNHCR Transitional Solutions Initiative Joint Programme for Refugees and their Host Communities, Eastern Sudan (Phase 1).

UNDP, & UNHCR. (2013). Transitional Solutions Initiative (TSI) Joint Programme | Overview on Progress and Highlights. Retrieved from http://europe.undp.org/content/dam/geneva/docs/TSI JP Overview & Progress Highlights.pdf

UNHCR. (2005). Handbook for Self-reliance. Geneva.

UNHCR. (2010). Concept Note - Transitional Solutions Initiative UNDP and UNHCR in collaboration withe the World Bank (pp. 1–9).

UNHCR. (2014a). Policy on Alternatives to Camps. Geneva.

UNHCR. (2014b). UNHCR’s Global Shelter and Settlement Strategy, 2014-2018 (pp. 1–23).

UNHCR. (2014c). Za’atari Refugee Camp: 2013 Safety and Security Report (pp. 1–18).

UNHCR. (2015). Zaatari Refugee Camp: Factsheet - April 2015.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2003-2016 Migration Letters / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.