Immigration and the tech industry: As a labour shortage remedy, for innovation, or for cost savings?
The two main reasons cited by the U.S. tech industry for hiring foreign workers--remedying labour shortages and hiring "the best and the brightest"--are investigated, using data on wages, patents, and R&D work, as well as previous research and industry statements. The analysis shows that the claims of shortage and outstanding talent are not supported by the data, even after excluding the Indian IT service firms. Instead, it is shown that the primary goals of employers in hiring foreign workers are to reduce labour costs and to obtain "indentured" employees. Current immigration policy is causing an ‘Internal Brain Drain’ in STEM.
AILA (1998). Testimony of the American Immigration Lawyers Association to the House Immigration Subcommittee, April 21, 1998.
Alexander, J. 2010. Evaluation of the CIFellows Project, SRI Internationl, December 2010.
Alvares, K. (1998). Testimony of Kenneth Alvares, VP Human Resources, Sun Microsystems, to the House Immigration Subcommittee, April 21, 1998.
Bednarz, A. (2012). Java Developer Most Difficult Tech Job to Fill, Network World, July 17, 2012, http://www.networkworld.com/news/2012/071712-tech-job-survey-260950.html.
Benderly, B. (2012). Disturbing Employment Trends in NSF Doctorate Recipient Report, Science Careers (a blog of Science magazine), December 17, 2012, http://blogs.sciencemag.org/sciencecareers/2012/12/disturbing-empl.html.
Bethel, C. (2011). My Experiences as a CIFellow, Computing Research News, September 2011, 8.
Bound, J, Turner, S. & Walsh, P. (2006). Internationalization of U.S. Doctorate Education, in Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, R. Freeman and D. Goroff (eds.), University of Chigao Press, 2006.
Brown C, Campbell, B. & Pinsoneault (1998). The Perceived Shortage of High-Tech Workers, 1998 working paper, http://heather.cs.ucdavis.edu/ClairBrown.html.
Brown, C. & Linden, G. (2009). Chips and Change, MIT Press, 2009, p.132.
Carey, P. (2011). In Silicon Valley, Select Tech Workers Are in High Demand, San Jose Mercury News, June 26, 2011.
Cooper, B. (2011). Testimony of Bo Cooper, partner, Berry, Appleman and Leiden, to the House Immigration Subcommittee, March 31, 2011.
Costa, D. (2012). STEM Labor Shortages? Microsoft Report Distorts Reality About Computing Occupations, EPI Policy Memorandum 195, 2012.
CRA (2011). The Role of Post Docs in Computer Science: a CRA Working Paper. January 26, 2011, cra.org/postdocs/Issues-PostDoc-1-28-2011.pdf
Darrow, B. (2012). Big Data Skills Bring Big Dough, Gigaom (blog), February 17, 2012, http://gigaom.com/2012/02/17/big-data-skills-bring-big-dough/.
Davis, G. (2006). Improving the Postdoctoral Experience: An Empirical Approach, In Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, R. Freeman and D. Goroff (eds.), University of Chigao Press, 2006.
Dice (2011). America’s Tech Talent Crunch, Dice.com, 2011, marketing.dice.com/pdf/Dice_TechTalentCrunch.pdf
Drapier, T. (2011). Startup Cafe (blog), October 30, 2011, http://startupcafe.co.uk/ 2011/10/30/silicon-milkroundabout-the-jobs-fair-matching-developers-with-startups/.
GAO (2003). H-1B FOREIGN WORKERS: Better Tracking Needed to Help Determine H-1B Program’s Effects on U.S. Workforce, GAO, GAO-03-883, September 2003.
GAO (2011). H-1B VISA PROGRAM Reforms Are Needed to Minimize the Risks and Costs of Current Program, GAO-11-26, January 2011.
Hira, R. (2010). Bridge to Immigration of Cheap Temporary Labor? The H-1B and L-1 Visa Programs Are a Source of Both, EPI Briefing Paper #257, February 17, 2010.
Hira, R. (2010). The H-1B and L-1 Visa Programs Out of Control, EPI Briefing Paper #280, 2010.
Hunt, J. (2009). Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial?, NBER Working Paper 14920, April 2009.
Hunt, J. & Gauthier-Loiselle, M. (2010). How Much Does Immigration Boost Innovation?, American Economic Journal, April 2010, 31-56.
Hunt, J. (2011). Which Immigrants Are Most Innovative and Entrepreneurial?, Journal of Labor Economics, 2011, 417-457.
Hunt, J. (2012). Does the United States Admit the Best and Brightest Computer and Engineering Workers?, Rutgers University working paper, September 2012.
INS (2002). Report on Characteristics of Specialty Occupation Workers (H-1B): Fiscal Year 2001, Immigration and Naturalization Service, July 2002.
ITAA (1997). Help Wanted: The IT Workforce Gap At the Dawn of a New Century, Information Technology Association of America, Arlington VA, 1997.
Kerr, W. & Lincoln, W. (2010). The Supply Side of Innovation: H-1B Visa Reforms and U.S. Ethnic Invention. Journal of Labor Economics, July 2010, 473-508.
Kerr, S. & Kerr, W. (2013). Immigration and Employer Transitions for STEM Workers, American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, forthcoming.
Lehrer, B. (2009). Radio interview of Vivek Wadhwa, The Brian Lehrer Show, Station WNYC, May 1, 2009, http://www.podtrac.com/pts/redirect.mp3/ audio.wnyc.org/bl/bl050109dpod.mp3.
Lerman, R. (1998). The Labor Market for Information Technology Workers, R. Lerman, testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, February 25, 1998, http://www.urban.org/publications/900279.html.
Light, J. & Silverman, R. (2011). Generation Jobless: Students Pick Easier Majors Despite Less Pay, Wall Street Journal, November 9, 2011.
Lofstrom, M. & Hayes, J. (2012). H-1bs: How Do They Stack Up to U.S. Workers? IZA Discussion Paper No. 6259, 2012.
Lowell, B.L. & Salzman, H. (2007). Into the Eye of the Storm: Assessing the Evidence on Science and Engineering Education, Quality, and Workforce Demand, Urban Institute, October 2007, .
Massy, W. & Goldman, C. (1995). The Production and Utilization of Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States, Stanford Institute for Higher Education Research, Stanford University, July 1995.
Matloff, N. (2003). On the Need for Reform of the H-1B Nonimmigrant Work Visa in Computer-Related Occupations, University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, Fall 2003, Vol. 36, Issue 4, 815-914.
Matloff, N. (2006). On the Adverse Impact of Work Visa Programs on Older U.S. Engineers and Programmers. California Labor and Employment Law Review (a publication of the California State Bar Association), August 2006.
Matloff, N. (2013). Outstanding Talent and High-Skilled Immigration: a Look at Data and Policy, forthcoming EPI article.
McGee, M. & Chabrow, E. (2004). Hitting the Year's H-1B Visa Limit Raises Questions of Whether the United States Is Open Enough, InformationWeek, February 23, 2004, http://www.informationweek.com/immigration-innovation/17800189.
McKendrick, J. (2010). SOA Skills Add 37% Premium to Salaries, Survey Shows, ZDNet, January 25, 2010, http://www.zdnet.com/blog/service-oriented/soa-skills-add-37-premium-to-salaries-survey-shows/3968.
Mithas, S. & Lucas, H. (2010). Are Foreign IT Workers Cheaper? U.S. Visa Policies and Compensation of Information Technology Professionals, Management Science, May 2010, 745-765.
Mukhopadhyay, S. & Oxborrow, D. (2012). The Value of an Employment-Based Green Card, Demography, February 2012, 219-237.
NIH (2012). BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH WORKFORCE WORKING GROUP REPORT, NIH, June 14, 2012, oral presentation, http://videocast.nih.gov/ summary.asp?live=1132.
NACE (2011). Average Starting Salary to Class of 2011 Up 3.5 Percent, National Association of Colleges and Employers, press release, February 10, 2011.
NRC (2001). Building a Workforce for the Information Economy, National Academies Press, 2001.
Overby, S. (2007). The Next Wave of Globalization: Offshoring R&D to India and China, CIO, October 31, 2007, http://www.cio.com/article/150652/ The_Next_Wave_of_Globalization_Offshoring_R_D_to_India_and_China_
Salzman, H. (2012). personal communication to the author, August 14, 2012.
Swaim, D. (2012). An Employer's Guide to the Immigration Process. Tidwell, Swaim and Associates, www.tsalaw.com/Pdf/employerguide.pdf.
Tang, J. (2000). Doing Engineering: the Career Attainment and Mobility of Caucasian, Black, and Asian-American Engineers, Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.
Thibodeau, P. (2011). H-1B Pay and Its Impact on U.S. Workers Is Aired by Congress, Computerworld, March 31, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9215405/ H_1B_pay_and_its_impact_on_U.S._workers_is_aired_by_Congress.
Wadhwa, V., Rissing, B. & Gereffi, G. (2007). Industry Trends in Engineering Offshoring. 2007.
Wadhwa, V. (2008). High-Tech Hiring: Youth Matters, BusinessWeek, January 15, 2008.
Wadhwa, V. (2012). America's Irrational Immigration Fear, Washington Post blog, July 30, 2012.
Weinstein, E. (1998). How and Why Government, Universities, and Industry Create Domestic Labor Shortages of Scientists and High-Tech Workers, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1998. The report cited was by Peter House, Director, Policy Research and Analysis Division, National Science Foundation, 1989.
Wharton, C. (2012). What Is the Value of a Green Card? Nevada Today, February 21, 2012, http://www.unr.edu/nevada-today/news/2012/what-is-the-value-of-a-green-card.
Whitaker, D. (2011). Testimony of Darla Whitaker, Vice President for Human Resources, Texas Instruments, U.S. House Subcommittee Hearing, October 5, 2011, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg70576/html/CHRG-112hhrg70576.htm, responding to a question by Rep. Gallegly.
Wildavsky, B. (2010). Why Foreign Students Don’t Crowd Out Americans, Chronicle of Higher Education, September 13, 2010.
Zweben, S. (2012). Computing Degree and Enrollment Trends: from the 2010-2011 Taulbee Survey, 2012.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2003-2016 Migration Letters / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.