Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Searching for ‘success’: generation, gender and onward migration in the Iranian diaspora

Melissa Kelly

Abstract


This article uses the concepts of ‘transnational social fields’ and ‘habitus’ to explore the multifaceted role families play in shaping the aspirations of onward migrating youth. The article draws on biographical life history interviews conducted with the children of Iranian migrants who were raised in Sweden but moved to London, UK as adults. The findings of the study suggest that from a young age, all the participants were pressured by their parents to perform well academically, and to achieve high level careers. These goals were easier to achieve in London than in Sweden for several reasons. Interestingly, however, participants’ understandings of what constituted success and their motivations for onward migration were nuanced and varied considerably by gender. The study contributes to an understanding of the role of multi-sited transnational social fields in shaping the aspirations of migrant youths, as well as the strategies taken up by these migrants to achieve their goals.


Keywords


intergenerational; transnational social fields; transnational habitus; Iranian diaspora; onward migration

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adkins, L. (2004). “Introduction: Feminism, Bourdieu and after”. In: L. Adkins and B. Skeggs (eds.) Feminism after Bourdieu (pp. 3−33). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Kelly, M. (2013). Onward Migration: The Transnational Trajectories of Iranians Leaving Sweden. Uppsala: Geographica 1

Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. R. Nice. London: Routledge.

Brah, A. (1996). Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London: Routledge.

Butler, T. and Robson, G. (2003). The Middle Classes and the Re-Making of Inner London. Oxford: Berg.

Clark, K. and Drinkwater, S. (2007). Ethnic Minorities in the Labour Market: Dynamics and Diversity. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Darvishpour, M. (1999). “Intensified gender conflicts within Iranian families in Sweden”. Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 7 (1): 20−33.

Ehrkamp, P. (2013). “’I’ve had it with them!’ Younger migrant women’s spatial practices of conformity and resistance”. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 20 (1): 19−36.

Eliassi, B. (2010). A Stranger in my Homeland: The Politics of Belonging among Young People with Kurdish Backgrounds in Sweden. Mid Sweden University, Department of Social Work.

Erel, U. (2009). Migrant Women Transforming Citizenship. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Esping-Andersen, G. (1985) “Power and distributional regimes”. Politics Society 14(2): 223-256.

Fernandez-Kelly, P. (2008). “The back pocket map: Social class and cultural capital as transferable assets in the advancement of second-generation immigrants”. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 620 (1): 116−137.

Friedmann, J. (2002). “Placemaking as project? Habitus and migration in transnational cities”. In: J. Hillier and E. Rooksby (eds.) Habitus: A Sense of Place (pp. 299−316). Aldershot: Ashgate.

GeoSweden (2008). Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University.

Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L. and Szanton Blanc, C. (1995). “From immigrant to transmigrant: Theorizing transnational migration”. Anthropological Quarterly, 68 (1): 48−63.

Graham, M. and Khosravi, S. (1997). “Home is where you make it: Repatriation and diaspora culture among Iranians in Sweden”. Journal of Refugee Studies, 10 (2): 115−133.

Haikkola, L. (2011). “Making connections: Second generation children and the transnational field of relations”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37 (8): 1201−1217.

Hakimzadeh, S. (2006) “Iran: A vast diaspora abroad and millions of refugees at home”. Migration Information Source. Accessed March 9, 2011. http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/print.cfm?ID=424.

Holvino, E. and Kamp, A. (2009) “Diversity management: are we moving in the right direction? Reflections from both sides of the North Atlantic.” Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25: 395-403.

Hosseini-Kaladjahi, H. and Kelly, M. (2012). “Iranians and the Swedish Labour Market”. In: H. Hosseini-Kaladjahi (ed.) The Iranian Community in Sweden: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 23−44). Tumba: The Multicultural Centre.

Kelley, R. (1993). “Wealth and illusions of wealth in the Los Angeles Iranian community”. In: R. Kelley, J. Friedlander and A. Colby (eds.) Irangeles: Iranians in Los Angeles (pp. 247−273). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kelly, M. (2013) Onward Migration: The Transnational Trajectories of Iranians Leaving Sweden. Geographica 1. Uppsala: Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University.

Kelly, P. and Lusis, T. (2006). “Migration and the transnational habitus: Evidence from Canada and the Philippines”. Environment and Planning A, 38 (5): 831−847.

Khosravi, S. (2009). “Displaced masculinity: Gender and ethnicity among Iranian men in Sweden”. Iranian Studies, 42 (4): 591−609.

Knocke, W. (2000). “Integration or segregation? Immigrant populations facing the labour market in Sweden”. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 21 (3): 361−380.

Laoire, C. N., Carpena-Mendez, F., Tyrrell, N. and White, A. (2010). “Introduction: Childhood and migration − mobilities, homes and belongings”. Childhood, 17 (2): 155−162.

Levitt, P. (2009). “Roots and routes: Understanding the lives of the second generation transnationally”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35 (7): 1225−1242.

Levitt, P. and Glick Schiller, N. (2004). “Conceptualizing simultaneity: A Transnational social field perspective on society”. International Migration Review, 38 (3): 1002−1039.

McAulifee, C. (2008). “Transnationalism within: Internal diversity in the Iranian diaspora”. Australian Geographer, 39 (1): 63−80.

McDowell, L. (1999). Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

McNay, L. (2000). Gender and Agency: Reconfiguring the Subject in Feminist and Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Pimlott-Wilson, H. (2011). “The role of familial habitus in shaping children’s views of their future employment”. Children’s Geographies, 9 (1): 111−118.

Shavarini, M. (2004). Educating Immigrants: Experiences of Second-Generation Iranians. New York. LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.

Sperling, J. (2014). “Conceptualizing ‘Inter-Destination Transnationalism’: The Presence and Implication of Coethnic Ties between Destination Societies”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40 (7): 1097−1115.

Torres, S. (2001). Understanding ‘Successful Aging’: Cultural and Migratory Perspectives. Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Sociology.

Vertovec, S. (2009). Transnationalism. London: Routledge.

Wengraf (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic, Narrative and Semi-Structured Methods. London: Sage.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2003-2016 Migration Letters / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.