Eliciting salient beliefs of engineers in Malaysia on migrating abroad
Despite various government efforts incorporating economic, social and political considerations in curbing emigration problem, brain drain remains an issue in Malaysia. This paper examines the determinants of migration from behavioural perspectives. Using Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model, the engineers’ salient beliefs on migrating abroad were elicited using qualitative analysis. A number of new behavioural, normative and control beliefs were identified. The elicitation of the engineers’ salient beliefs is essential in developing appropriate behavioural intervention programmes to reduce their intention to migrate abroad. The methodology developed in this study can also assist future researchers to identify the salient beliefs of people who have high intention to migrate abroad.
Agénor, P., Canuto, O. and Jelenic, M. (2012). “Avoiding Middle-Income Growth Traps”. Economic Premise, No. 98.
Ajzen, I. (1991). “The Theory of Planned Behaviour”. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50:179-211.
Ajzen, I. (2002). “Constructing a TPB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations”. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from www.unix.oit.umass.edu/~ajzen/
Ajzen, I. (2011). “Behavioral Interventions: Design and Evaluation Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. In M. M. Mark, S. I. Donaldson, B. Campbell (Eds.)”, Social Psychology and Evaluation (pp. 72-101). New York, NY US: Guilford Press.
Amir, O., Ariely, D., Cooke, A., Dunning, D., Epley, N., Gneezy, U., and Silva, J. (2005). “Psychology, Behavioral Economics, and Public Policy”. Marketing Letters, 16:443–454
Anderson, C.L. and Stamoulis, K. (2006). “Applying Behavioural Economics to International Development Policy”. United Nations University – World Institute for Development Economics Research Paper No. 2006/24.
Ang, J. (2015). “Salary Expectations among Students in Malaysia at a New Low”. Retrieved Jan 7, 2015 from http://www.humanresourcesonline.net/salary-expectations-among-students-malaysia-new-low/
Arango, J. (2000). “Explaining Migration: A Critical View”. International Social Science Journal, 52(165):283-296
Armitage, C.J. and Conner, M. (2001). “Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Meta-analytic Review”. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40:471-499.
Beine, M., Docquier, F. and Rapoport, H. (2008). “Brain Drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries: Winners and Losers”. The Economic Journal, 118:631–652.
Castles, S. (2010). “Understanding Global Migration: A Social Transformation Perspective”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(10):1565-1586.
Chan, L. and Bishop, B. (2013). “A Moral Basis for Recycling: Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour”. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36:96 -102
Charles, M. (2011). “What Gender is Science?” Contexts, 10(2):22-28
Chen, M. and Tung, P. (2014). “Developing an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Predict Consumers’ Intention to Visit Green Hotels”. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36:221–230
Choong, Y.O., Keh, C.G., Tan, Y.T., Lim, Y.H. and Tho, M.S. (2013). “Propensity to Work Abroad Amongst Generation Y Working Adults in Malaysia”. Paper presented at International Conference on Social Science Research, Penang, MALAYSIA, 4-5 June 2013.
De Groot, C., Mulder, C.H. and Manting, D. (2011). “Intentions to Move and Actual Moving Behaviour in the Netherlands”. Housing Studies, 26(3):307–328.
De Jong, G.F. (2000). “Expectations, Gender, and Norms in Migration Decision-Making”. Population Studies, 54(3):307-319.
Department of Statistics Malaysia (2016). Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2014 – 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016 from https://www.statistics.gov.my/index.php?r =column/pdfPrev&id=OWlxdEVoYlJCS0hUZzJyRUcvZEYxZz09
Docquier, F. and Marfouk, A. (2006). “International Migration by Educational Attainment” (1990-2000), in C. Ozden and M. Schiff (eds). International Migration, Remittances and Development, Palgrave Macmillan: New York.
Docquier, F., Lohest, O. and Marfouk, A. (2007). “Brain Drain in Developing Countries”. World Bank Economic Review, 21:193-218.
Engle, R.L., Schlagel, C., Dimitriadi, N., Tatoglu, E. and Ljubica, J. (2015). “The Intention to Become an Expatriate: a Multinational Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour”. European Journal of International Management, 9(1):109-137.
Felipe, J., Abdon, A. and Kumar, U. (2012). “Tracking the Middle-income Trap: What Is It, Who Is in It, and Why?” The Levy Economics Institute Working Paper Collection, Working paper No. 715.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behaviour: an Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (2005). “Theory-based Behaviour Change Interventions: Comments on Hobbis& Sutton”. Journal of Health Psychology, 10(1):27–31.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (2010). “Predicting and Changing Behaviour: The Reasoned Action Approach”. New York: Psychology Press.
Flaaen, A., Ghani, E. and Mishra, S. (2013). “How to Avoid Middle-Income Traps? Evidence from Malaysia”. Economic Premise, No. 120.
Foo, G. (2011). “Quantifying the Malaysian Brain Drain and an Investigation of its Key Determinants”. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 48(2):93-116.
Francis, J.F., Eccles, M. P., Johnston, M., Walker, A., Grimshaw, J., … Bonetti, D. (2004). “Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Manual for Health Services Researchers”. Centre for Health Services Research, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Retrieved March 10, 2015 from http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/1735/
Harnoss, J. D. (2011). “Economic Costs of the Malaysian Brain Drain: Implications from an Endogenous Growth Model”. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 48 (2):117-130.
Hassan, H. (2009, Nov 10). Brain-drain debate after Penang loses $4b deal. The Strait Times. Retrieved May 12, 2015 from http://news.asiaone.com/News/the+Straits+Times/ Story/A1Story20091110-178889.html
Hugo, G. (2011). “Malaysian Migration to Australia”. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 48(2):147-174.
Jauhar, J., Yusoff, Y. M. and Khoo, M. Y. (2009). “Factors that Drive Brain Drain of Accountants in Malaysia”. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organizational Learning, 1-2 October.
Lim, T.L. (2014). Framing the Malaysian Brain Drain: A Comparison between the Reporting Styles of The Star Online vs Malaysiakini. The Journal of the South East Asia Research Centre for Communications and Humanities. 6(1): 97-121
Macmillan Dictionary (2010). “Generation Y Definition and Synonyms”. Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/generation-y
MIDA (2014, March17). “Need to Fix Talent Shortage”. New Straits Times. Retrieved June 6, 2015 from http://etp.pemandu.gov.my/Related_Stories-@-Mida-;_Need_to_ fix_talent_shortage.aspx
MPC (2016). Productivity Report 2015/16. Malaysian Productivity Corporation: Kuala Lumpur.
Ong, M. (2015, September 1). “About 3,600 Malaysians Overseas have Returned – TalentCorp”. AstroAwani. Retrieved June 6, 2015 from http://english. astroawani.com/malaysia-news/about-3-600-malaysians-overseas-have-returned-talentcorp-71312
Presley, A., Damron-Martinez, D. and Zhang, L. (2010). “A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour”. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 21:227–247.
PwC (2009). “Managing tomorrow’s People: Millenials at Work – Perspectives from a New Generation”. Retrieved June 6, 2015 from http://www.pwc.de/de_DE/ de/prozessoptimierung-/assets/Managing_tomorrows_people_millennials _at_workperspectives_from_a_new_generation. Pdf
Quah, C.H., Zainal, S.R. and Chai, G. E. (2014). “Return Intentions of Malaysia’s Diaspora: The Push and Pull Factors”. Case Studies in Business and Management, 1(1):140 -151
Remhof, S., Gunkel, M. and Schlaegel, C. (2014). “Goodbye Germany! The influence of Personality and Cognitive Factors on the Intention to Work Abroad”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(16):2319-2343.
Sebastian, G.S. (2013). “How to Engage and Understand Gen Y?” Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://leaderonomics.com/business/growth/how-to-engage-and-understand-gen-y
Sharmila, G. (2016). “Recruiting and Retaining Engineering Talent”. Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://www.kinibiz.com/story/corporate/210362/recruiting-and-retaining-engineering-talent.html
Sirkeci, I (2009). “Transnational Mobility and Conflict”. Migration Letters, 6(1):3-14
Sirkeci, I., Cohen, J.H. and Yazgan, P. (2012). “Turkish Culture of Migration: Flows between Turkey and Germany, Socio-economic Development and Conflict”. Migration Letters, 9(1):33-46.
TalentCorp (2012). Talent roadmap 2012. Kuala Lumpur: TalentCorp Malaysia
Tan, S. (2014). “The Gender Gap in STEM”. Retrieved June 12, 2015 from https://www.digitalnewsasia.com/insights/the-gender-gap-in-stem
The Star (2011, Feb, 12). Blueprint Needed. Retrieved August 15, 2016 from http://www.pressreader.com/malaysia/the-star-malaysia/20110212/ 285349038426877
Tyson, D. A., Jeram, D., and Azlan, H.N., (2011). “Ethnicity, Education and the Economics of Brain Drain in Malaysia: Youth Perspectives”. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 48(2):75-184.
UNDESA (2013). “International Migration Report 2013”. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
Wahab, M.A. (2014). “The Occurrence of Brain Drain in Malaysia: Perceptions on to Work or not to Work Overseas in the Future”. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 5(5):480-489
World Bank (2011). “Malaysia Economic Monitor - Brain Drain”. Retrieved October 7, 2014 from www-wds.worldbank.org/.../614830WP0malay10Box358348B01PUBLIC1.pdf
World Bank (2015). “World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and Behaviour”. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2003-2016 Migration Letters / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.