Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Effect of colour and relative product size (RPS) on consumer attitudes

Varsha Jain, Subhadip Roy, Advita Pant

Abstract


Colour and visuals are used extensively by the advertisers of different product categories to attract consumer attention and create favourable attitude. Based on this premise, the present study aimed to explore the effect of colour and relative product size on the consumer attitudes incorporating the moderating role of product familiarity. An experimental design was used, with a sample size of 420 respondents of 18-25 years in a 3 (Product Size: Large/Med/Small) X 2 (Ad Colour: CL/BW) X 2 (Gender: Male/Female) full factorial design. The dependent variables were attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention with product familiarity as the moderating variable. Colour scheme of the ad was not found to have any effect on the consumers’ attitude, while medium size of the product relative to the ad size was found to be the most preferred option. Product familiarity was found to have significant moderating impact. Females were more influenced by the colour and picture size as compared with males. Implications for practitioners in designing ad content and layout are discussed. 


Keywords


Colour and product size; advertisements; consumer attitudes; product familiarity; India

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aaker, J. L. and Williams, P. (1998). Empathy versus pride: The influence of emotional appeals across cultures. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(3): 241–261.

An, D. (2003). Content Analysis of Advertising Visuals in the Magazine Advertisements: The Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression. Web Journal of Mass Communication Research, 3(6): 1-6.

Anastasi, A. and Foley, J. (1949). Differential Psychology, Individual and Group Differences in Behavior. New York: Macmillan.

Anderson, J. R. (1978). Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychology Review, 85(4): 249-277.

Babin, B. J., Hardesty, D. M., and Suter, T. A. (2003). Color and shopping intentions: the intervening effect of price fairness and perceived affect. Journal of Business Research, 56(7): 541-551.

Bellizzi, J. A. and Milner, L. (1991). Gender Positioning of a Traditionally Male-Dominant Product. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(3): 72-79.

Bellizzi, J. A., and Hite, R. E. (1992).Environmental Color, Consumer Feelings and Purchase Likelihood. Psychology and Marketing, 9(5): 347-363.

Birren, F. (1978). Color and Human Response, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Broverman, D. M., Klaiber, E. L., Kobayashi, Y., and Vogel, W. (1968). Roles of activation Advertising Effects 24 and inhibition in sex difference in cognitive abilities. Psychological Review, 75(1): 23-50.

Brucks, M. (1985). The effects of product class knowledge edge on information Search Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(1): 1-16.

Bugelski, B. R. (1983). Imagery and the thought processes, in A. Sheikh (Ed.), Imagery: Current theory, research and application. New York: John Wiley.

Bulmer, S. and Buchanan-Oliver, M. (2004). Meaningless or Meaningful? Interpreta-tion and Intentionality in post-modern communication. Journal of Marketing communication, 10(1): 1- 15.

Brunel, F. F. and Michelle R. N. (2003). Message Order Effects and Gender Differ-ences in Advertising Persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(5): 330-341.

Cahill, L. (2005). His brain, her brain. Scientific American, 292(5): 40-47.

Callow, M. and Schiffman, L. (2002). Implicit Meaning in Visual Print Advertise-ments: A Cross Cultural Examination of the Contextual Communication Ef-fect. International Journal of Advertising, 21(2): 259–277.

Carpenter, G. S., Glazer, R. and Nakamoto, K. (1994). Meaningful brands from meaningless differentiation: The dependence on irrelevant attributes. Journal of Marketing Research, 31(3): 339–350.

Carsky, M. L., and Zuckerman M. E. (1991). In search of gender differences in marketing communication: An historical/contemporary analysis. In Gender and Consumer Behavior, Costa J.A. (ed.). University of Utah Printing Service: Salt Lake City. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. State of the CDC Fiscal Year, 2003. CDC: Atlanta.

Chamblee R., Gilmore R., Thomas G., and Soldow G. (1993). When copy complexity can help readership. Journal of Advertising Research, 33(4): 23-28.

Childers, T. L. and Houston, M. J. (1984).Conditions for a picture-superiority effect on consumer memory. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(2), 643-654.

Childers, T. L., Heckler, S. E., and Houston, M. J. (1986).Memory for the visual and verbal components of print advertisements. Psychology and Marketing, 3(3): 137-150.

Coupey, E., Irwin, J. R., and Payne, J. W. (1998).Product Category Familiarity and Preference Construction. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4): 459-468.

Crowley, A. E. (1993). The two-dimensional impact of color on shopping. Marketing Letters, 4(1): 59-69.

Darley, W. K. and Smith, R. E. (1995). Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response. Journal of Advertising, 26(1): 41-56.

Decrop, A. (2007). The Influence of Message Format on the Effectiveness of Print Advertisements for Tourism Destinations. International Journal of Advertising, 26(4): 505-525.

Dondis, D.A. (1973). A Primer of Visual Literacy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dooley, R. P., and Harkins, L. E. (1970). Functional and Attention-Getting Effects of Color on Graphic Communications. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 31(12): 851-854.

Edell, J. A. and Burke, M. C. (1987). The power of feelings in understanding advertising effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(3): 421–433.

Fernandez, K. V. and Rosen, D. L. (2000). The Effectiveness of Information and Color in Yellow Pages Advertisement. Journal of Advertising, 29(2): 59-73.

Garrett, J. C. and Brooks, C. I. (1987). Effect of Ballot Color, Gender of Candidate, and Gender of Voter on Voting Behavior of College Students. Psychological Reports, 60(1): 39-44.

Gorn, G. J., Chattopadhyay, A., Tracey, Y. and Dahl, D. W. (1997). Effects of Color as an Executional Cue in Advertising: They're in the Shade. Management Science, 43(10): 1387-1400.

Graham, D. J. and Graham, J. F. (2008).Improving media campaigns promoting physical activity: the underutilized role of gender. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 13(3), 205-213.

Gregory, W. L., Cialdini, R. B., and Carpenter, K. M. (1982). Self-relevant scenarios as mediators of likelihood estimates and compliance: Does imagining make it so.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(1): 89-99.

Gronhaug, K., Kvitastein, O. and Gronmo, S. (1991). Factors Moderating Advertising Effectiveness as Reflected in 333 Tested Advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(5): 42-50.

Guilford, J. P. (1934). The Affective Value of Color as a Function of Hue, Tint, and Chroma. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17(3): 342-370.

Guilford, J. P. and Patricia, S. C. (1959). A System of Color Preferences. American Journal of Psychology, 72(4): 487-502.

Hall, R. and Hanna, P. (2004). The Impact of Web Page Text-Background Color Combinations on Readability, Retention, Aesthetics, and Behavioral Intention. Behaviour& Information Technology, 23(3): 183-195.

Hampel, S., Heinrich, D. and Campell, C. (2012). Is An Advertisement Worth the Paper It's Printed on? The Impact of Premium Print Advertising on Consumer Perceptions. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(1): 118-127.

Hass, A. (1979). Male and female spoken language differences: Stereotypes and evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3): 616-626.

Hirschman, E. and Solomon, M. (1984).Utilitarian, aesthetic, and familiarity responses to verbal versus visual advertisement. Advances in Consumer Research, 11(1): 426–431.

Homer, P. M. (2006). Relationships among ad-induced affect, beliefs, and attitude: Another look. Journal of Advertising, 35(1): 35–51.

Houston, M. J., Childers, T. L., and Heckler, S. E. (1987). Picture-word consistency and the elaborative processing of advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 24(4): 359-369.

Jausovec, N. and Jausovec, K. (2009). Do Women See Things Differently Than Men Do? Neuroimage, 45(1): 198-207.

Jacobs, K. W. and Suess, J. F. (1975). Effects of four psychological primary colors on anxiety state. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41(1): 207-210.

Kellaris, J., J. and Mantel, P. S. (1994). The Influence of Mood and Gender on Consumers’ Time Perceptions. Advances in Consumer Research, 21(1): 514-517.

Kelly, K. J. and Hoel, R. F. (1991). The Impact of Size, Colour and Copy Quantity on Yellow Pages Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(4): 64-71.

Kisielius, J. and Sternthal, B. (1984). Detecting and explaining vividness effects in attitudinal judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1); 414-416.

Klinteberg, B., Levander S., and Schalung D. (1987). Cognitive sex differences: speed and problem solving strategies on computerized neuropsychological tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65: 683-697.

Kosslyn, S. M. (1975). Information Representation in Visual Images. Cognitive Psychology, 7(3): 341-470.

Kosslyn, S. M. (1980). Images and Mind, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lafferty, B. A., Goldsmith, R. E., and Newell, S. J. (2002). The Dual Credibility Model: The Influence of Corporate and Endorser Credibility on Attitudes and Purchase Intentions. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(3): 1-12.

Lippman, M. (1974). Enactive imagery in paired-associate learning. Memory and Cognition, 2(2): 385-390.

Lohse, G. L. (1997). Consumer Eye Movement Patterns on Yellow Pages Advertising. Journal of Advertising, 26(1): 61-73.

Lohse, G. L. and D. L. Rosen. (2001). Signaling Quality and Credibility on Yellow Pages Advertising: The Influence of Color and Graphics on Choice. Journal of Advertising, 30(2): 73-85.

MacInnis, D. J. and Price, L. L. (1987). The role of imagery in information processing: Review and extensions. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4): 473-491.

Madden, T. J., Heweth, K. and Roth-Martin, S. R. (2000). Managing Images in Different Cultures: A Cross-National Study of Color Meanings and Preferences. Journal of Inter-national Marketing, 8(4); 90-107.

McKelvie, S. J. (1987). Sex Differences, Lateral Reversal, and Pose as Factors in Recognition Memory for Photographs of Faces. Journal of General Psychology, 114(1): 13-38.

McQuarrie, E. and Mick, D. (2003). Visual and verbal rhetorical figures under di-rected processing versus incidental exposure to advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(4): 579 587.

Meyers-Levy, J. (1989). Gender Differences in Information Processing: A Selectivity Interpreta-tion, in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Advertising. Patricia Cafferata and Alice M. Tybout, eds., Lexington, MA: Lexington.

Meyers-Levy, J., and Maheswaran, D. (1991).Exploring Differences in Males’ and Females’ Processing Strategies. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(1): 63-70.

Meyers-Levy, J. and Sternthal, B. (1991). Gender Differences in the Use of Message Cues and Judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(1): 84-96.

Meyers-Levy, J., and Peracchio, L. A. (1995). Understanding the Effects of Color: How the Correspondence Between Available and Required Resources Affects Attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(2): 121-138.

Michon, R., Chebat, J. C., and Turley, L. W. (2005). Mall atmospherics: the interaction effects of the mall environment on shopping behavior. Journal of Business Research, 58(5): 576-583.

Miniard, P. W., Bhatla, S., Lord, K. R., Dickson, P. R., and Unnava, H. R. (1991). Picture-Based Persuasion Processes and the Moderating Role of Involvement. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(1): 92–107.

Mothersbaugh, D.L., Huhmann, B.A. and Franke, G.R. (2002). Combinatory and separative effects of rhetorical figures on consumers' effort and focus in ad processing. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(4): 589–602.

Noseworthy, J. T., Cotte, J. & Lee, H. S. (2011). The Effects of Ad Context and Gender on the Identification of Visually Incongruent Products. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(2): 358-375.

Ogilvy, D (1985). Ogilvy on Advertising. New York: Random House.

Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pallak, S. R. (1983). Salience of a Communicator's Physical Attractiveness and Persuasion: A Heuristic versus Systematic Processing Interpretation. Social Cognition, 2(2): 158-170.

Percy, L. and Rossiter, J. R. (2001). Effects of Picture Size and Colour on Brand Attitude Responses in Print Advertising. Advances in Consumer Research, 10(1): 17–20.

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., and Schumann, D. (1983). “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement”, Journal of Consumer Research, 10(2): 135-146.

Phillips, B. J. (1997). Thinking Into It: Consumer Interpretation of Complex Advertising Images. Journal of Advertising, 26(2): 77-87.

Pogun, S. (2001). Sex differences in brain and behavior: emphasis on nicotine, nitric oxide, and place learning, personality and individual differences. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42(2): 195-208.

Po-Lin, P. and Juan, M. (2008). Advertising Preference and Personal Involvement: An Investigation of Gender and Visual Differences in Advertising Effects. National Communication Association, 1-28.

Poole, M. E. (1977). Social class: Sex contrasts in patterns of cognitive style. Australian Journal of Education, 21(3): 233-255.

Pracejus, J. (2003). Visuals are information: how meaning is transferred to consumers through executional elements in advertising. Advances in Consumer Research, 30(1): 174–176.

Prakash, V. and Flores, C. (1985). A Study of Psychological Gender Differences Application for Advertising Format, in NA – Advances in Consumer Research, 12 (eds.), Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Putrevu S. 2004. Communicating with the sexes. Journal of Advertising, 33(3): 51-62.

Rossiter, J. (1982). Visual imagery: applications to advertising. Advances in Consumer Research, 9(1): 101–106.

Rossiter, J. R. and Percy, L. (1978). Visual Imaging Ability as a Mediator of Advertising Response, in Hunt, H.K. (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research: Vol. V, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Association for Consumer Research.

Sadler-Trainor, G. and Sadler-Trainor, G. (2005). A visual overdose? Visual communications in public relations. Public Relations Quarterly, 50(4): 7–9.

Schaie, K. W. and Heiss R. (1964). Color and Personality, Berne, Switzerland: Hans Huber.

Schlosser, A. E. (2003). Experiencing Products in the Virtual World: The Role of Goal and Imagery in Influencing Attitudes versus Purchase Intentions. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2): 184–198.

Schroeder, J. (2002). Visual Consumption, London and New York: Routledge series on Interpretive Marketing Research.

Scott, L.M. (1994). Images in advertising: the need for a theory of visual rhetoric. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(2): 252–273.

Shani, D., Sandler, M. D., and Long, M. (1992). Courting Women Using sports Marketing: A Content Analysis of the US Open. International Journal of Advertising, 11(4): 377-392.

Slee, J. (1978). The consistency of different manipulations of visual imagery: A methodological study. Australian Journal of Psychology, 30(1): 7-20.

Smith, R. (1991). The effects of visual and verbal advertising information on consumers' inferences. Journal of Advertising, 20(4): 13–24.

Stafford, M. R., Stafford T. and Day, E. (2002). A Contingency Approach” The Effects of Spokesperson Type and Service Type on Service Advertising Perception. Journal of Advertising, 31(2): 17-24.

Summers, T. A., and Hebert, P. R. (2001). Shedding some light on store atmospherics: influence of illumination on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 54(2): 145-150.

Treisman, A. (1982). Perceptual Grouping and Attention in Visual Search for Features and for Objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8(2): 194-214.

Wang, A. Fang, J.J. and Chen, C. (2003). Effects of VDT Leading-Display Design on Visual Performance of Users in Handling and Dynamic Display Information Dual-Tasks. Journal of International Ergonomics, 32(2): 93-104.

Wells, W., Burnett, J. and Moriarty, S.E. (2003). Advertising: Principles and Practice, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wexner, L. B. (1954). The Degree to Which Colors (Hues) Are Associated with Mood-Tones. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38(3): 432-435.

Wolin, L. D. (2003). Gender issues in advertising: An oversight synthesis of research: 1970 2002. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(1): 111–129.

Zhang, S. and Markman, A. B. (1998). Overcoming the early entrant advantage: The role of alignable and nonalignable difference. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(4): 413–426.

Zhou, K. Z. and Nakamuto, K. (2007). How do Enhanced and Unique Features Affect Product Preference? The Moderating Role of Product Familiarity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1): 53-62.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Transnational Press London

Copyright © 2012-2016 Transnational Marketing Journal / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.