New minorities, old instruments? Diversity governance from the perspective of minority rights
In international law, minority rights instruments have been traditionally conceived for, and applied to, old minority groups with the exclusion of new minority groups originating from migration. Yet, minority groups, irrespective of their being old or new minorities, can be subsumed under a common definition and have some basic common claims. This allows devising a common but differentiated set of rights and obligations for old and new minority groups alike. This paper argues that the extension of the scope of application of legal instruments of minority protection, such as the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM), is conceptually meaningful and beneficial to the integration of new minorities stemming from migration.
Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention (ACFC) (2001). Opinion on Austria, 16 May 2001, ACFC/INF/OP/I/009.
Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention (ACFC) (2001a). Opinion on the United Kingdom, 30 November 2001, ACFC/INF/OP/I(2002)006.
Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention (ACFC) (2002a). Opinion on Germany, 1 March 2002, ACFC/INF/OP/I/008.
Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention (ACFC) (2002b). Opinion on Ukraine, 1 March 2002, ACFC/INF/OP/I/010.
Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention (ACFC) (2004). Second Report submitted by Finland, 10 December 2004, ACFC/SR/II(2004)012 (Art.3).
Åkermark Spiliopoulou, S. (2007/8). “Shifts in the Multiple Justifications of Minority Protection”, European Yearbook on Minority Issues, 7: 5-18.
Bauböck, R. (1994). The Integration of Immigrants, Report of the 7th Meeting of the Joint Group of Specialists on Migration, Demography and Employment. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, CDMG(94) 25.
Bosset, P. and Foblets, M.-C. (2009). “Accommodating diversity in Quebec and Europe: different legal concepts, similar results?” In: Institutional accommodation and the citizens: legal and political interaction in a pluralist society. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, Trends in social cohesion, No. 21.
Bouchard, G. and Taylor, C. (eds) (2008). Building the Future: A Time for Reconciliation. Quebec: Consultation Commission on Accommodation Practices Related to Cultural Differences, Gouvernement du Québec.
Capotorti, F. (1977). Study on the Rights of Persons Belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/384/Rev.1.
Council of Europe (CoE) Venice Commission (2007), European Commission for Democracy Through Law. Report on Non-Citizens and Minority Rights, CDL-AD(2007)001.
European Commission on/of Human Rights (ECommHR) (1997). Kennedy J. Lindsay and Others v. the U.K., Appl. No. 31699/96, decision of 17 January 1997.
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (1979). Marckx v. Belgium, judgment of 13 June 1979, Series A, No. 31.
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (1989). Kamasinski v. Austria, judgment of 19 December 1989, Series A, No. 168.
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (2001). Cyprus v. Turkey, Appl. No. 25781/94, judgment of 10 May 2001.
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (2006). Kalifatstaat v. Germany, Appl. No. 13828/4, decision on the admissibility of 11 December 2006.
Eide, A. (1993). Protection of Minorities, Report submitted to the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Forty-fifth session, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1993/34.
Eide, A. (2000). Commentary to the UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, Working paper submitted to the UN Working Group on Minorities, Sixth session, UN Doc., E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/2000/WP.1.
Ekéus, R. (2006). Statement to the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, Fifth Annual Winter Meeting, Vienna, HCNM.GAL/3/06.
EU (2005). Communication from the Commission, ‘A Common Agenda for Integration: Framework for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals in the European Union’, COM(2005) 389 final, Annex.
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) (1995). Declaration by Germany, dated 11 May 1995, and renewed on 10 September 1997, at .
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) (1995a). Explanatory Report, at .
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) (1997). Declaration by Estonia, dated 6 January 1997, at .
Kymlicka, W. (1997). States, Nations and Cultures, Spinoza Lectures, Assen: University of Amsterdam, Van Gorcum.
Kymlicka, W., and Opalski, M. (eds) (2001). Can Liberal Pluralism be Exported? Western Political Theory and Ethnic Relations in Eastern Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. (2007). Multicultural Odysseys. Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Marko, J. (1997). ‘Equality and Difference: Political and Legal Aspects of Ethnic Group Relations’. In F. Matscher (ed.) Vienna International Encounter on Some Current Issues Regarding the Situation of National Minorities, Kehl, Strasbourg, Arlington, N.P. Engel Verlag.
Medda-Windischer, R. (2009). Old and New Minorities: Reconciling Diversity and Cohesion, Baden-Baden: Nomos Publisher.
Medda-Windischer, R. and Kössler, K. (eds.) (2014). “Regional Citizenship as Loophole or Tool for Inclusion? A Comparative Appraisal on Autonomous Territories”, European Yearbook on Minority Issues (Special Focus), 13.
Organisation on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) (2004). Edinburgh Declaration, Parliamentary Assembly, at .
Organisation on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) High Commissioner on National Minorities (2012). The Ljubljana Guidelines on Integration of Diverse Societies, at < http://www.osce.org/hcnm/96883>.
UN Commission on Human Rights (1985). Report of the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Resolution No.1985/6, 4 November 1985, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/57.
UN Human Rights Committee (1994). General Comment No. 23, The rights of minorities (Art. 27 ICCPR), 8 April 1994, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.5.
Walzer, M. (1995). ‘Pluralism: A Political Perspective’. In: W. Kymlicka (ed.), The Rights of Minority Cultures, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wheatley, S. (2003). ‘Deliberative Democracy and Minorities’, European Journal of International Law, 14(3): 507-27.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2003-2018 Migration Letters / Transnational Press London | All rights reserved | Contact Us
TRANSNATIONAL PRESS LONDON LTD. IS A COMPANY REGISTERED IN ENGLAND AND WALES No. 8771684.